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Producing novel liquid crystals by stacking antiaromatic units

Producing novel liquid crystals by stacking antiaromatic units
2024-05-23
In organic chemistry, π-stacking systems are supramolecular structures that arise due to the dispersion force, a type of intermolecular noncovalent interaction. They are a common occurrence in nature; the stabilized structure of DNA is a very prominent example of a π-stacking system, and so are the arrangement of amino acids in certain proteins. Interestingly, π-stacking can be leveraged in the design of materials with useful electronic and optical properties. These include organic semiconductors of various kinds, as well as conjugated polymers for sensing and biomedical applications. Thus far, a good portion of technologically relevant π-stacking system has been limited ...

First pictures from Euclid satellite reveal billions of orphan stars

First pictures from Euclid satellite reveal billions of orphan stars
2024-05-23
The first scientific pictures from the Euclid satellite mission have revealed more than 1,500 billion orphan stars scattered throughout the Perseus cluster of galaxies.  Led by astronomers from the University of Nottingham, this discovery sheds light on the origins of these celestial wanderers. The Perseus cluster, located 240 million light-years away from Earth, is one of the Universe's most massive structures, boasting thousands of galaxies. However, amidst this cosmic ensemble, the Euclid satellite captured faint ghostly light - the orphan stars - drifting between the cluster's galaxies.  Stars naturally form within galaxies, so the presence of orphan ...

VIDEO: Surrey astrophysicists explore new galaxies and streams of stars using new data from Euclid space telescope

2024-05-23
As the European Space Agency publishes the first findings from its Euclid space telescope, scientists from the University of Surrey are celebrating fresh insights from the data. Dr Denis Erkal, Associate Professor of Astrophysics at the University of Surrey, studies how the gravity of the Milky Way pulls clusters of stars apart, creating streams of stars trailing across the galaxy.   Now, his model for how this happens (video HERE) has been confirmed by data from Euclid. Dr Erkal said: “For a long time, my modelling ...

Scientists reveal first data from Euclid telescope offering snapshot of cosmic history

2024-05-23
Scientists have released the first set of scientific data captured with the Euclid telescope, showing an exciting glimpse of the Universe’s distant past. The telescope, launched in July 2023, is part of the Dark Energy Satellite Mission, which aims to map the dark Universe. Led by the European Space Agency in collaboration with The Euclid Consortium - which includes astronomers at The University of Manchester in leadership positions – the mission seeks to unlock mysteries of dark matter and dark energy and reveal how and why the Universe looks as it does today. Early observations, described in a series ...

Big data, AI, and personalized medicine: scientists reveal playbook aiming to revolutionize healthcare

Big data, AI, and personalized medicine: scientists reveal playbook aiming to revolutionize healthcare
2024-05-23
What should the medicine of the future look like? A team of scientists writing in Frontiers in Science lays out a bold vision for precision approaches to understanding, preventing, and treating diseases, driven by revolutionary technologies and new interdisciplinary collaborations between researchers and other health sector professionals. The internationally renowned authors – led by Prof Michel Goldman, recipient of the Blaise Pascal Medal 2024 for his exceptional contributions to immunology and healthcare innovation, and leading microbiologist Prof Philippe Sansonetti from the Institut Pasteur and Collège ...

First ever survey of A&E triage nurses highlights problems with a lack of training, low staffing, high stress and overflowing departments

2024-05-23
Peer-reviewed - survey - people  Nurses who assess patients at emergency departments would like more training and say their decisions can be negatively impacted by the high pressures of their work.  Researchers at the University of East Anglia conducted the first ever UK survey of triage nurses to discover the background, training and decision-making processes of this role in emergency departments.  Lead author Hugh Gorick, a PhD researcher at UEA’s School of Health Sciences who also works as an assistant practitioner in an NHS hospital’s Acute Medical Unit, said: “More than 24 million patients present to emergency departments ...

The global clean water crisis looms large

The global clean water crisis looms large
2024-05-23
Water scarcity will intensify with climate and socioeconomic change, disproportionately impacting populations located in the Global South. So concludes a new Utrecht University article published in Nature Climate Change on 23 May 2024, which used a state-of-the-art global water quantity and quality model to estimate clean water scarcity until the end of the century. Humans require clean water for drinking and sanitation purposes, but also for the production of food, energy and manufactured goods. As communities and policymakers grapple with water scarcity issues on the ground, researchers ...

Antibiotic ‘Velcro’ gives bacteria a sticky situation

Antibiotic ‘Velcro’ gives bacteria a sticky situation
2024-05-23
A small antibiotic called plectasin uses an innovative mechanism to kill bacteria. By assembling into large structures, plectasin latches onto its target on the bacterial cell surface comparable to how both sides of Velcro form a bond. A research team, led by structural biologist Markus Weingarth and biochemist Eefjan Breukink  at Utrecht University, mapped how the Velcro-structure is formed. Their discovery, published in the scientific journal Nature Microbiology, unveils a new approach that could have broad implications for the development of antibiotics to ...

City of Hope researchers to present investigational treatments for colorectal, kidney and blood cancers at 2024 American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) Annual Meeting

2024-05-23
LOS ANGELES — World-renowned physicians and researchers from City of Hope®, one of the largest cancer research and treatment organizations in the United States, will present new data and offer expert perspectives on leading-edge cancer research and treatments in development at the 2024 ASCO Annual Meeting, which will take place in Chicago from May 31 to June 4. Highlights include the following: 2024 Best of ASCO® program: New data on mismatched unrelated donor peripheral blood stem cell transplantation Late-breaking data on the phase 3 CodeBreaK 300 trial Glofitamab monotherapy for patients ...

Bigger is better: male proboscis monkeys’ enhanced noses evolved to attract mates

2024-05-23
When it comes to the animal kingdom, bigger is better. Well, at least for proboscis monkeys, famously known for their long, large and droopy noses. Researchers from The Australian National University (ANU) have provided a world-first explanation for why male proboscis monkeys have larger and “enhanced” nasal structures. The researchers examined the bony nasal cavity inside the skulls of proboscis monkeys and found their large noses are more than just an eye sore and in fact offer several major benefits, especially when ...

Early access to first-seizure clinics, subsequent outcomes, and factors associated with attendance

2024-05-23
About The Study: The results of this cohort study suggest that first-seizure clinic (FSC) attendance, particularly early attendance, was associated with reduced rates of subsequent hospital utilization. This knowledge may support adequately resourcing FSCs to improve equitable, timely access. Future study directions include assessing interventions that may support FSC attendance for at-risk groups. Corresponding Author: To contact the corresponding author, Emma Foster, M.B.B.S.(Hons), Ph.D., email emma.foster@monash.edu. To access the embargoed study: Visit our For The Media website at this link https://media.jamanetwork.com/ (doi:10.1001/jamaneurol.2024.1187) Editor’s ...

How stores use TikTok to sell e-cigarettes to children

2024-05-23
A new paper in Nicotine and Tobacco Research, published by Oxford University Press, shows that advertising and sales of vaping products is common on TikTok, the video sharing platform popular among teenagers. Users pushing these items often use hashtags like #puffbundles to disguise vaping products by including things like lip gloss and candy in the packages for sale. Despite smoking rates reaching an all-time low in the United States, public health professionals are concerned about adolescent use of electronic cigarettes. In 2023 some 4.7 million (17%) middle school and high school students ...

Mistaken identity cleared up of foodborne pathogen causing severe symptoms in children

Mistaken identity cleared up of foodborne pathogen causing severe symptoms in children
2024-05-23
The prevalence of pathogenic E. coli has meant the frequent misidentification of a similar bacterium of the Escherichia genus. E. albertii is an emerging zoonotic foodborne pathogen, first isolated in Bangladesh in 1991. Large-scale outbreaks of food poisoning caused by E. albertii have since been reported especially in Japan, causing severe symptoms in both children and adults. In the hopes of establishing a diagnostic method, a joint research group led by Professor Shinji Yamasaki and Dr. Sharda Prasad Awasthi, a specially appointed ...

Approximately one in nine U.S. children diagnosed with ADHD, as new national study highlights an “ever-expanding” public health concern

2024-05-23
An exploration into the national U.S. dataset on children ever diagnosed with ADHD has revealed an “ongoing and ever-expanding” public health issue.    Findings published in the peer-reviewed Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology uncover that approximately one million more children, aged 3-17, had received an ADHD diagnosis in 2022 than in 2016.    The paper reveals around one in nine children have ever received an ADHD diagnosis – 11.4%, ...

Survey: Parents of young athletes value health benefits of sports, but experts emphasize watching for signs of stress, burnout

Survey: Parents of young athletes value health benefits of sports, but experts emphasize watching for signs of stress, burnout
2024-05-23
COLUMBUS, Ohio (May 23, 2024) — Positive sports experiences can be a game changer for kids, with physical, social, emotional and mental health benefits that last a lifetime, according to a new survey from The Kids Mental Health Foundation. However, youth mental health advocates with The Kids Mental Health Foundation stress the importance of ongoing conversations with young athletes about how their sports are impacting their confidence, self-esteem and happiness, whether it’s positive or negative.  The national survey conducted by Ipsos on behalf of The Kids Mental Health Foundation finds parents overwhelmingly ...

Gene could unlock big wheat yields for a growing population

Gene could unlock big wheat yields for a growing population
2024-05-23
A study from the University of Adelaide has discovered molecular pathways regulated by a gene traditionally used to control wheat-flowering behaviour could be altered to achieve greater yields. The gene is called Photoperiod-1 (Ppd-1) and it is used regularly by breeders to ensure wheat crops flower and set grain earlier in the season, avoiding the harsh conditions of summer. However, there are known drawbacks. “While this variation benefits wheat productivity by aligning pollination and grain development with more favourable environmental conditions, it also penalises yield by reducing the number of ...

Quantum photonic technologies set to be more reliable with new interferometer.

Quantum photonic technologies set to be more reliable with new interferometer.
2024-05-23
An increasing number of emerging quantum applications operate using optical technologies. Essentially, photons carry information at the speed of light and over long distances, making them good candidates for fast and secure communications and quantum computing. Many of these applications require photons that are identical (indistinguishable). When the photons are not identical, it can lead to errors in the data and quantum technologies become less reliable. Currently, quantum photon sources are regularly taken offline to be tested and adjusted using ...

Future climate impacts put whale diet at risk

Future climate impacts put whale diet at risk
2024-05-23
A new study led by Griffith University predicts that future climate change impacts could disrupt the krill-heavy diet that humpback whales in the southern hemisphere consume.  Dr Jasmin Groß, who conducted the study as a PhD candidate at Griffith’s Centre for Planetary Health and Food Security analysed fatty acids and stable isotopes from blubber and skin samples of five different humpback whale populations around the southern hemisphere.   These levels were then compared to those of their primary prey item, Antarctic krill.  The team found that although there were distinct differences in the biochemical profiles, the diet of all tested ...

How a landscape intervention method can be used to address inequalities in electronic waste treatment process?

How a landscape intervention method can be used to address inequalities in electronic waste treatment process?
2024-05-23
The rapid development of electronic technology has resulted in the annual phase-out of a large amount of waste electrical and electronic equipment, known as “e-waste,” especially in developed countries. In the context of economic globalization, the lack of relevant environmental laws and policies in developing countries and less developed countries, as well as cheap labor, has attracted developed countries to export a large amount of domestic e-waste to these countries. The chemicals produced during the low-tech dismantling process enter the air, soil, and deep groundwater, contaminating ...

UChicago partners with UMass on NSF expedition to elevate computational decarbonization as a new field in computing

2024-05-23
A team of researchers from the University of Chicago has been named winners of the 2024 NSF CISE Expedition Program for their part in the proposal of computational decarbonization (CoDec). This prestigious award, granted by the National Science Foundation (NSF), underscores the groundbreaking potential of CoDec in revolutionizing societal decarbonization through computational innovation.   As the largest research award within the NSF's Computer and Information Science and Engineering (CISE) directorate, the Expeditions in Computing program recognizes pioneering endeavors poised to make profound impacts on both scientific understanding and societal advancement. The CoDec ...

Epidural linked to reduction in serious complications after childbirth

2024-05-23
Having an epidural during labour is associated with a marked reduction in serious complications in the first few weeks after giving birth, finds a study published by The BMJ today.  Doctors refer to these complications as severe maternal morbidity (SMM), which can include heart attack, heart failure, sepsis, and hysterectomy.  Epidural analgesia is recommended for women with known risk factors for SMM, such as obesity, certain underlying conditions, or having more than one baby. These women are said to have a ‘medical indication’ for epidural analgesia in labour. Women delivering prematurely ...

Safety fears for England’s screening services if national oversight is lost

2024-05-23
Plans to devolve responsibility for the quality of England’s 11 national screening services could result in significant safety risks, experts tell The BMJ in an exclusive report today. Assistant news editor Gareth Iacobucci explains that NHS England is currently discussing proposals to delegate some of the functions of the national Screening Quality Assurance Service (SQAS) from NHSE to regional Integrated Care Boards (ICBs). But concerned experts warn that devolving responsibility to local organisations will spread resources more thinly, lead to a loss of expertise and independence, and compromise ...

Preteens use dating apps, and 1 in 4 are sexual minorities

2024-05-22
Though most online dating apps have a minimum age requirement of 18 years, a new study finds a small number of 11 to 12 year-olds use them. Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) preteens are 13 times more likely to report engaging in online dating compared to their heterosexual peers. “Lesbian, gay, or bisexual adolescents, including preteens, may have limited romantic partner options in their schools, where they may also face discrimination, bullying, and stigma because of their sexual orientation,” says lead author Jason Nagata, MD, associate professor of pediatrics at ...

Merkin Prize in Biomedical Technology awarded to F. William Studier for development of widely used protein- and RNA-production platform

2024-05-22
F. William Studier of Brookhaven National Laboratory has won the second annual Richard N. Merkin Prize in Biomedical Technology for his development of an efficient, scalable method of producing RNA and proteins in the laboratory. His T7 expression technology can be used to make large quantities of nearly any RNA or protein and has been for decades, and continues to be, a mainstay of biomedical research and pharmaceutical production. The approach has been used to produce numerous therapeutics, diagnostics, and vaccines — including the COVID-19 mRNA vaccines credited with extending millions of lives in recent years.  “F. William ...

Geisinger funding renewed for familial hypercholesterolemia research

2024-05-22
DANVILLE, Pa. – Geisinger has been awarded $3 million from the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute of the National Institutes of Health to continue its research on familial hypercholesterolemia (FH). The new funding will build on Geisinger’s ongoing work to improve communication with patients with FH and their family members and increase early screening and diagnosis. FH is an inherited condition that causes high levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, often referred to as “bad cholesterol.” Left untreated, high ...
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