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Wiley's latest natural products database release empowers drug discovery and research

Wileys latest natural products database release empowers drug discovery and research
2024-04-16
 Wiley, one of the world’s largest publishers and a global leader in research and learning, today announced the 2024 release of its Wiley Identifier of Natural Products (AntiBase Library + ChemWindow). With an extensive collection of over 95,000 compounds, this growing natural products database serves as a powerful drug discovery screening tool to narrow down possible novel compounds having antimicrobial, antitumor, or other desired effects. Additionally, it finds applications in food and cosmetics, agriculture, pesticides, and ...

Reproductive success improves after a single generation in the wild for descendants of some hatchery-origin Chinook salmon

2024-04-16
NEWPORT, Ore. – Researchers who created “family trees” for nearly 10,000 fish found that first-generation, wild-born descendants of hatchery-origin Chinook salmon in an Oregon river show improved fitness. The finding, based on data collected over 13 years, is encouraging for Chinook salmon recovery efforts, said Kathleen O’Malley, an associate professor at Oregon State University and the study’s senior author. In this study, fitness is measured by the number of adult offspring a fish produces, with higher fitness leading to more offspring. “Previous studies have shown that hatchery-origin Chinook salmon have lower reproductive success ...

New treatment method using plasma irradiation promotes faster bone healing

New treatment method using plasma irradiation promotes faster bone healing
2024-04-16
“Break a leg!” is a welcome blessing of good luck, but who wants to hear that they have actually broken a bone? What’s worse, fractures that are displaced or complex require surgery and possibly lengthy recovery times while the patient remains partly or wholly immobilized. Aiming to shorten recovery times, an Osaka Metropolitan University-led research group is focusing on plasma irradiation as a treatment method to speed up bone healing. The Department of Orthopedic Surgery’s Kosuke Saito, a graduate student in the Graduate School of Medicine, Associate Professor Hiromitsu Toyoda, and Professor Hiroaki ...

CNIC scientists identify therapeutic targets for the prevention of heart injury linked to cancer treatment

CNIC scientists identify therapeutic targets for the prevention of heart injury linked to cancer treatment
2024-04-16
Scientists at the Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Cardiovasculares (CNIC) have identified the mechanisms through which anthracyclines, a widely used class of anticancer drugs, damage the hearts of patients receiving this treatment. The study, published in the journal JACC: CardioOncology, also identifies possible treatments for this complication, which affects an estimated one third of cancer survivors.   More than 4 million people in Europe are diagnosed with cancer every year. Fortunately, survival rates have increased significantly thanks to improved treatments and advances in diagnosis. Anthracyclines, ...

Older males out-compete young males when it comes to extra-marital breeding

Older males out-compete young males when it comes to extra-marital breeding
2024-04-16
Young male blue tits are less successful in fathering offspring outside their breeding pair, not because of a lack of experience, but because they are outcompeted by older males, Bart Kempenaers and colleagues from the Max Planck Institute for Biological Intelligence in Germany report in a study publishing April 16th in the open-access journal PLOS Biology. Many birds form breeding pairs but will also mate and produce offspring outside of that pairing — known as “extra-pair” paternity. Inexperienced males in their first year of breeding ...

Using machine learning to identify patients with cancer that would benefit from immunotherapy

Using machine learning to identify patients with cancer that would benefit from immunotherapy
2024-04-16
A new study examines the development of two machine learning models to classify the immunophenotype of a cancer specimen. The digital pathology approach presented can characterize and classify cancer immunophenotypes in a reproducible and scalable fashion, holding promise for the application of such a. method to identify patients that may benefit from immunotherapy in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), according to the study published in the peer-reviewed journal AI in Precision Oncology. Click here to ...

NASA’s Fermi mission sees no gamma rays from nearby supernova

NASA’s Fermi mission sees no gamma rays from nearby supernova
2024-04-16
A nearby supernova in 2023 offered astrophysicists an excellent opportunity to test ideas about how these types of explosions boost particles, called cosmic rays, to near light-speed. But surprisingly, NASA’s Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope detected none of the high-energy gamma-ray light those particles should produce. On May 18, 2023, a supernova erupted in the nearby Pinwheel galaxy (Messier 101), located about 22 million light-years away in the constellation Ursa Major. The event, named SN 2023ixf, is the most luminous nearby supernova discovered since Fermi launched in ...

Neutrons rule the roost for cage-free lithium ions

Neutrons rule the roost for cage-free lithium ions
2024-04-16
An international team of scientists found a way to improve battery design that could produce safer, more powerful lithium batteries. The team used quasi-elastic neutron scattering at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to set the first benchmark, one-nanosecond, or one billionth of a second, for a mixture of lithium salt and an organic polymer electrolyte. “It all comes down to the study of materials,” said Eugene Mamontov, ORNL Chemical Spectroscopy group leader. “And polymer electrolytes won’t catch fire the way liquid electrolytes do in lithium batteries.” The team used the neutron technique to validate computer ...

Common HIV treatments may aid Alzheimer’s disease patients

Common HIV treatments may aid Alzheimer’s disease patients
2024-04-16
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) currently afflicts nearly seven million people in the U.S. With this number expected to grow to nearly 13 million by 2050, the lack of meaningful therapies represents a major unmet medical need. Scientists at Sanford Burnham Prebys have now identified promising real-world links between common HIV drugs and a reduced incidence of AD. The study, led by Jerold Chun, M.D., Ph.D., was published in Pharmaceuticals. Chun’s new research builds on his lab’s landmark ...

Turner to receive funding for Israel Institute Postdoctoral Fellowship

2024-04-16
John Turner, Professor, Religious Studies, is set to receive funding for: “Israel Institute Postdoctoral Fellowship.”  This funding will support a postdoctoral teaching fellow for three (3) academic years starting in fall 2024. Regarding the importance of this funding, Turner said, “Curricula across academic units at George Mason contain very little material about the modern State of Israel, a significant gap given the importance of the nation and region to contemporary politics and conflict. This grant will enable RELI to address this gap and add content on this important subject.” Turner will receive $248,460 from Israel ...

How AI improves physician and nurse collaboration

2024-04-16
With large language models that take notes during patient visits and algorithms that identify disease, artificial intelligence has begun to prove its worth as an assistant for physicians. But a new study from Stanford Medicine shows the potential of AI as a facilitator — one that helps doctors and nurses connect to achieve more efficient, effective patient care. The study, which published in JAMA Internal Medicine last month, describes an AI-based model in use at Stanford Hospital that ...

Diverse native wildflower plantings for pollinators in farmlands

Diverse native wildflower plantings for pollinators in farmlands
2024-04-16
Pollinators are declining rapidly, largely due to land conversion and intensification of agriculture. To mitigate their crisis, low-disturbance habitats, such as sown wildflower plantings (commonly known forms are wildflower strips at the edges of arable fields), could promote pollinators by restoration of their resources (food, sheltering and nesting habitats). However, comprehensive knowledge is lacking on how landscape context, spatial configuration and age of wildflower plantings, seasonality and flower composition affect pollinator communities, especially from East-Central Europe. To understand these effects, researchers from the HUN-REN Centre for Ecological Research, established ...

Study suggests adolescent stress may raise risk of postpartum depression in adults

2024-04-16
In a new study, a Johns Hopkins Medicine-led research team reports that social stress during adolescence in female mice later results in prolonged elevation of the hormone cortisol after they give birth. The researchers say this corresponds to the equivalent hormonal changes in postpartum women who were exposed to adverse early life experiences — suggesting that early life stress may underlie a pathophysiological exacerbation of postpartum depression (PPD).  The team’s findings, first published online Apr. 11, 2024, in Nature Mental Health, also suggest that current drug ...

New book gathers insights, methods from rising generation of Indigenous archaeologists

New book gathers insights, methods from rising generation of Indigenous archaeologists
2024-04-16
LAWRENCE —  A book co-edited by a University of Kansas scholar that collects the experiences and know-how of younger Indigenous archaeologists, titled “Indigenizing Archaeology: Putting Theory into Practice,” is newly published by the University Press of Florida.   Carlton Shield Chief Gover, acting assistant professor of anthropology and acting assistant curator of archaeology at KU, conceived and co-edited the new volume. Its chapters include lessons and case studies from the discipline.  “This is the first book to our knowledge completely comprised of Indigenous scholars in ...

Scientists identify cell vulnerability ‘fingerprint’ related to Parkinson’s, Lewy body dementia

Scientists identify cell vulnerability ‘fingerprint’ related to Parkinson’s, Lewy body dementia
2024-04-16
GRAND RAPIDS, Mich. (April 16, 2024) — A new study from Van Andel Institute scientists offers a first look into the complex molecular changes that occur in brain cells with Lewy bodies, which are key pathological hallmarks of Parkinson’s disease and some dementias. The findings, published in the journal Nature Communications, reveal that brain cells with Lewy bodies exhibit a specific gene expression pattern akin to a disease-related fingerprint. “We’ve long known that Lewy bodies play a role in Parkinson’s and other neurodegenerative diseases but there are still many ...

Cooler transformers could help electric grid

Cooler transformers could help electric grid
2024-04-16
Most people do not give the U.S. electric grid a second thought — we flip a switch and the lights come on. Behind the scenes are thousands of power plants and utilities linked by millions of miles of transmission lines. And to make raw electricity useful, grid transformers convert high voltage to lower voltage that millions of households can plug into.  Transformers are aging and approaching an average of being 30 to 40 years old. Plus, they face more stress than ever before brought on by factors such as renewable energy and by extreme weather events such as hurricanes, heat waves, and winter storms.  Case in point — the 2021 event in Texas that ...

Oregon State researchers advance pigment chemistry with moon-inspired reddish magentas

Oregon State researchers advance pigment chemistry with moon-inspired reddish magentas
2024-04-16
CORVALLIS, Oregon – An Oregon State University researcher who made color history in 2009 with a vivid blue pigment has developed durable, reddish magentas inspired by lunar mineralogy and ancient Egyptian chemistry. Mas Subramanian, distinguished professor of chemistry, and collaborators at OSU report the findings of the study, funded by the National Science Foundation, in the journal Chemistry of Materials. The new pigments, which could be used as energy-efficient coatings for vehicles and buildings, are based on divalent chromium, Cr2+,  and are ...

Conformity to masculine gender norms is linked to muscle dysmorphia among young people

2024-04-16
Toronto, ON - A new research study out of the University of Toronto sheds light on the intricate relationship between conformity to masculine gender norms and muscle dysmorphia symptomatology among a diverse sample of Canadian adolescents and young adults. The study entitled "Exploring the Association Between Conformity to Masculine Gender Norms and Muscle Dysmorphia Symptomatology in a Gender-Diverse Canadian Population" was recently published in the journal Sex Roles. Muscle dysmorphia, characterized ...

EuBiologics’ simplified OCV achieves WHO PQ

EuBiologics’ simplified OCV achieves WHO PQ
2024-04-16
- Euvichol-S, developed jointly by EuBiologics and IVI, improves productivity by approximately 40% over Euvichol-Plus® - Production and supply of Euvichol-S expected to help address cholera vaccine shortages   April 15, 2024, SEOUL, Republic of Korea – EuBiologics and the International Vaccine Institute (IVI) announced that Euvichol-S, an improved oral cholera vaccine (OCV) developed jointly by EuBiologics and IVI, has achieved World Health Organization prequalification (PQ). Euvichol-S ...

GPT-4 matches radiologists in detecting errors in radiology reports

2024-04-16
OAK BROOK, Ill. – Large language model GPT-4 matched the performance of radiologists in detecting errors in radiology reports, according to research published today in Radiology, a journal of the Radiological Society of North America (RSNA). Errors in radiology reports may occur due to resident-to-attending discrepancies, speech recognition inaccuracies and high workload. Large language models, such as GPT-4, have the potential to enhance the report generation process. “Our research offers a novel examination of the potential of OpenAI’s GPT-4,” said study lead author Roman J. Gertz, M.D., resident in the Department ...

SwRI to discuss automotive decarbonization, automation at SAE International’s WCX™ 2024

SwRI to discuss automotive decarbonization, automation at SAE International’s WCX™ 2024
2024-04-16
SAN ANTONIO — August 16, 2024 —Southwest Research Institute helps the automotive industry transition to smart, sustainable mobility, developing hybrid, electric and hydrogen solutions and applying artificial intelligence for safe, eco-friendly driving. SwRI engineers will be in Detroit April 16-18 to share their expertise at the 2024 SAE International WCX™ World Congress Experience. WCX invites mechanical, electrical and software engineers working in mobility from around the world to share new knowledge and advancements. “The automotive and transportation sectors are going through tremendous change and challenges as they navigate ...

From a cryptic genetic element in the human gut to a sensitive biomarker

2024-04-16
A component of the human intestinal flora that has been little studied to date is the focus of a new study. Plasmids are small extrachromosomal genetic elements that frequently occur in bacterial cells and can influence microbial lifestyles – yet their diversity in natural habitats is poorly understood. An international team led by Prof. Dr. A. Murat Eren from the Helmholtz Institute for Functional Marine Biodiversity at the University of Oldenburg (HIFMB) reports in the science journal Cell, a mysterious plasmid, is one of the most numerous genetic elements in the human gut that could potentially serve as a powerful biomarker for identifying ...

Researchers can help shipowners achieve ambitious climate targets

Researchers can help shipowners achieve ambitious climate targets
2024-04-16
Shipowners around the world are in a very difficult position, because they are having to order new ships now that will run on fuel and technologies that are not yet fully developed. A new study suggests that ammonia could be a smart and energy-efficient fuel in the race to achieve net zero in shipping. Researchers at the Department of Industrial Economics and Technology Management (IØT) and the Department of Marine Technology (IMT) at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) ...

Florida Wildlife Corridor eases worst impacts of climate change

Florida Wildlife Corridor eases worst impacts of climate change
2024-04-16
From rising temperatures and altered precipitation patterns to intense weather events such as hurricanes, Florida is experiencing significant climate-related challenges in tandem with skyrocketing insurance rates. As the state’s population continues to surge by 1,000 new residents a day, it is projected to lose 3.5 million acres of land to development by 2070, threatening Florida’s future ability to maintain biodiversity and ecosystem services. A first-of-its-kind study highlights how Florida can buffer itself against both climate change ...

Creating an island paradise in a fusion reactor

Creating an island paradise in a fusion reactor
2024-04-16
In their ongoing quest to develop a range of methods for managing plasma so it can be used to generate electricity in a process known as fusion, researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) have shown how two old methods can be combined to provide greater flexibility.  While the two methods – known as electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD) and applying resonant magnetic perturbations (RMP) – have long been studied, this is the first time researchers have simulated how they can be used together to ...
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