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Deep learning-based whole-body PSMA PET/CT attenuation correction utilizing Pix-2-Pix GAN

Deep learning-based whole-body PSMA PET/CT attenuation correction utilizing Pix-2-Pix GAN
2024-05-09
“We have developed a Pix-2-Pix GAN model to perform attenuation correction on whole-body PSMA [prostate-specific membrane antigen] PET images with 18F-DCFPyL.” BUFFALO, NY- May 9, 2024 – A new research paper was published in Oncotarget's Volume 15 on May 7, 2024, entitled, “Deep learning-based whole-body PSMA PET/CT attenuation correction utilizing Pix-2-Pix GAN.” The sequential PET/CT studies oncology patients can undergo during their treatment follow-up course is limited ...

Association between neighborhood deprivation and DNA methylation in an autopsy cohort

Association between neighborhood deprivation and DNA methylation in an autopsy cohort
2024-05-09
“[...] our study identified one CpG site (cg26514961, PLXNC1 gene) that was significantly associated with neighborhood deprivation in brain tissue.” BUFFALO, NY- May 9, 2024 – A new research paper was published in Aging (listed by MEDLINE/PubMed as "Aging (Albany NY)" and "Aging-US" by Web of Science) Volume 16, Issue 8, entitled, “The association between neighborhood deprivation and DNA methylation in an autopsy cohort.” Previous research has found that living in a disadvantaged neighborhood is associated with poor health outcomes. Living in disadvantaged neighborhoods may alter inflammation and immune response in the ...

A better way to control shape-shifting soft robots

2024-05-09
Imagine a slime-like robot that can seamlessly change its shape to squeeze through narrow spaces, which could be deployed inside the human body to remove an unwanted item. While such a robot does not yet exist outside a laboratory, researchers are working to develop reconfigurable soft robots for applications in health care, wearable devices, and industrial systems. But how can one control a squishy robot that doesn’t have joints, limbs, or fingers that can be manipulated, and instead can drastically alter its entire shape at will? MIT researchers are working to answer that question. They developed a control algorithm that can autonomously learn ...

Ensuring data security in biotechnology: strategies and challenges

Ensuring data security in biotechnology: strategies and challenges
2024-05-09
The rapid adoption of AI and big data technologies in the biotechnology sector presents unique data privacy and security challenges. To meet these challenges, BGI Genomics actively maintains certifications like ISO/IEC 27001 and BS 10012 while complying with rigorous regulatory standards, including GDPR. ISO/IEC 27001 is a comprehensive framework that dictates the requirements for an information security management system (ISMS), essential for protecting a company's financial data, intellectual property, and personal details entrusted by third parties. Meanwhile, BS 10012 specifically addresses the management of personal data, aligning ...

An entirely new COVID-related syndrome

An entirely new COVID-related syndrome
2024-05-09
Pradipta Ghosh, M.D., sat down in her office at the University of California San Diego School of Medicine and considered a request from the other side of the world. Ghosh, a professor in the Departments of Medicine and Cellular and Molecular Medicine at UC San Diego School of Medicine, received an email from Dennis McGonagle, Ph.D., professor of investigative rheumatology at the University of Leeds in the United Kingdom. It began an international collaboration, one that uncovered a previously overlooked ...

Improved wildfire smoke model identifies areas for public health intervention

2024-05-09
UNIVERSITY PARK, Pa. — The Canadian wildfires of June 2023 exposed a large portion of the Northeastern United States to unprecedented levels of smoke. A new model that combines wildfire smoke forecasts and data from ground-based sensors may help public health officials plan targeted interventions in areas most at risk for the negative health effects of unexpected smoke events and air pollution, according to a team led by Penn State scientists. The researchers reported their findings in the journal Science of the Total Environment. “Statistical analyses suggest that situations like last year’s ...

Highly drug-resistant infections from stem cell treatments in Mexico identified by National Jewish Health

2024-05-09
DENVER (May 9, 2024) – Experts in mycobacterial diseases at National Jewish Health, in collaboration with local health departments and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), are investigating a potential outbreak of a highly drug-resistant mycobacterium (germ) after U.S. patients who traveled to Mexico for stem cell injections became sick. Genetically identical Mycobacterium abscessus subspecies massiliense infections following stem cell injections at various clinics in Mexico prompted this investigation. Early results of the study were ...

Causal inference about the effects of interventions from observational studies in medical journals

2024-05-09
About The Study: Adoption of the proposed framework to identify when causal interpretation is appropriate in observational studies promises to facilitate better communication between authors, reviewers, editors, and readers. Practical implementation will require cooperation between editors, authors, and reviewers to operationalize the framework and evaluate its effect on the reporting of empirical research.  Corresponding Author: To contact the corresponding author, Issa J. Dahabreh, M.D., Sc.D., email idahabreh@hsph.harvard.edu. To ...

Turning trash into treasure: breakthrough innovations in PET plastic upcycling

Turning trash into treasure: breakthrough innovations in PET plastic upcycling
2024-05-09
A recent review has unveiled revolutionary methods to recycle and transform everyday polyethylene terephthalate (PET) plastic into valuable materials. By harnessing cutting-edge enzymes and catalysts, the review dramatically improves how we break down and reuse PET, slashing energy use and emissions. These game-changing techniques are poised to redefine plastic waste management and boost the circular economy. Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) plastic into valuable materials. By harnessing cutting-edge PET, a prevalent form of plastic, poses significant environmental risks due to its durability and resistance to natural degradation. Traditional recycling methods often result in inferior-quality ...

Keck Medicine of USC launches institute to promote excellence in nursing

Keck Medicine of USC launches institute to promote excellence in nursing
2024-05-09
LOS ANGELES — Keck Medicine of USC has launched the USC Nursing Institute to promote education, leadership development, clinical expertise and research among nurses.  The institute will support nurses across the health system’s four hospitals and more than 100 clinic locations to ensure nurses have access to the tools, education and training to provide exceptional patient care, facilitate collaboration and encourage career growth and leadership opportunities.  “Nurses are the backbone of our health system. The USC Nursing Institute supports a culture of excellence where nurses feel empowered to expand ...

Deep learning empowers reconfigurable intelligent surface in terahertz communication

Deep learning empowers reconfigurable intelligent surface in terahertz communication
2024-05-09
The escalating demand for wireless data traffic, driven by the proliferation of internet-of-things devices and broadband multimedia applications, has intensified the search for innovative solutions in wireless communication. A significant breakthrough has been reported in the application of reconfigurable intelligent surfaces for terahertz communications. In a research article published on Mar. 13 in Intelligent Computing, a team of researchers led by Zhen Gao of Beijing Institute of Technology has introduced a novel physical signal processing method that leverages deep learning to enhance ...

Scientists pinpoint new vaccine “booster” that promotes potent anti-tumour immunity

2024-05-09
Scientists from Trinity College Dublin have made an important breakthrough that offers promise for developing new immune therapies for cancer. They have discovered that a vaccine adjuvant – or “booster” – called C100 promotes potent anti-tumour immunity when it is injected directly into tumours in an animal model.  The scientists found that C100, derived from chitin – one of the most common building materials in nature, and which gives strength to the exoskeletons of crustaceans, insects, and the cell walls of fungi – is highly effective at stimulating a key sensing and signalling molecule which regulates ...

Study finds patients with limited English proficiency have poorer experiences with virtual health care

2024-05-09
People with limited English proficiency have a worse experience with virtual healthcare visits than those who are proficient in English, according to a new study led by a team of investigators at Brigham and Women’s Hospital, a founding member of the Mass General Brigham healthcare system. The study highlights the importance of designing telehealth platforms and processes that better serve people who face day-to-day language barriers. The study, published in JAMA Network Open, analyzed results ...

Declination of treatment, racial and ethnic disparity, and overall survival in patients with breast cancer

2024-05-09
About The Study: This cross-sectional study highlights racial and ethnic disparities in treatment declination and overall survival, suggesting the need for equity-focused interventions, such as patient education on treatment benefits and improved patient-clinician communication and shared decision-making, to reduce disparities and improve patient survival.  Corresponding Author: To contact the corresponding author, Dezheng Huo, M.D., Ph.D., email dhuo@bsd.uchicago.edu. To ...

Place-based measures of inequity and vision difficulty and blindness

2024-05-09
About The Study: Residential measures of inequity through segregation, income inequality, or persistent poverty were associated with a greater number of residents living with vision difficulty and blindness in this cross-sectional study. It is essential to understand and address how neighborhood characteristics can impact rates of vision difficulty and blindness.  Corresponding Author: To contact the corresponding author, Patrice M. Hicks, Ph.D., M.P.H., email pmhicks@med.umich.edu. To access the embargoed study: Visit our For The Media website at this link https://media.jamanetwork.com/  (doi:10.1001/jamaophthalmol.2024.1207) Editor’s ...

AI advancements make the leap into 3D pathology possible

AI advancements make the leap into 3D pathology possible
2024-05-09
Researchers developed Tripath to bridge computational gaps to process 3D tissue and predict outcomes based on 3D morphological features Cancer recurrence models trained on 3D tissue volumes outperformed models trained on 2D tissue images Human tissue is intricate, complex and, of course, three dimensional. But the thin slices of tissue that pathologists most often use to diagnose disease are two dimensional, offering only a limited glimpse at the tissue’s true complexity. There is a growing push in the field of pathology toward examining tissue in its three-dimensional form. But 3D pathology datasets can contain hundreds of times more data than their 2D counterparts, ...

Net zero plans show limited climate ambition on ‘residual’ emissions

2024-05-09
New research by the University of East Anglia (UEA) reveals what countries think will be their most difficult to decarbonise sectors when they reach net zero, with agriculture expected to be responsible for the largest remaining emissions. Once countries have taken the ‘easy’ steps to get to net zero - such as switching to more renewable electricity, electric cars, and heat pumps for homes - they are still left with some sources of emissions.  These ‘residual’ emissions continue to be emitted at the ...

New Rhizobia-diatom symbiosis solves long-standing marine mystery

New Rhizobia-diatom symbiosis solves long-standing marine mystery
2024-05-09
Nitrogen is an essential component of all living organisms. It is also the key element controlling the growth of crops on land, as well as the microscopic oceanic plants that produce half the oxygen on our planet. Atmospheric nitrogen gas is by far the largest pool of nitrogen, but plants cannot transform it into a usable form. Instead, crop plants like soybeans, peas and alfalfa (collectively known as legumes) have acquired Rhizobial bacterial partners that “fix” atmospheric nitrogen into ammonium. This partnership makes legumes one of the most important ...

New stem cell research may have implications for liver transplantation

New stem cell research may have implications for liver transplantation
2024-05-09
Liver disease, due to viral infections, alcohol abuse, obesity, or cancer, accounts for 1 in every 25 deaths worldwide. A liver transplant can be life saving for people with end-stage liver disease. However, the procedure has limitations related to donor shortage, a technically challenging and invasive surgical procedure, and the requirement for lifelong immunosuppressive medication in the transplant recipients. An alternative to whole organ transplantation is the less invasive injection of dissociated human liver cells, but donor shortage is still an issue. Utilizing ...

New cells could be key to treating obesity

New cells could be key to treating obesity
2024-05-09
Understanding how fat tissue forms and functions is crucial for addressing obesity and related metabolic diseases. However, adipose tissue, or body fat, behaves differently based on its location in the body. Take, for example, the omentum: a large, apron-like fatty tissue hanging from the stomach that covers organs within the peritoneum, such as the stomach and intestines. It not only stores fat but also plays roles in immune regulation and tissue regeneration. Omental adipose tissue is associated with ...

Supercharging immune cells to battle blood cancer: Breakthrough in cancer immunotherapy

Supercharging immune cells to battle blood cancer: Breakthrough in cancer immunotherapy
2024-05-09
A new study reveals a groundbreaking approach to immunotherapy, demonstrating that blocking the interaction between the CD300A receptor and phosphatidylserine (PS) significantly enhances the ability of human natural killer (NK) cells to lyse hematologic malignancies (HMs). Cancer has a profound impact on human life, and immune checkpoint therapy (ICT) has made remarkable strides in cancer treatment. However, ICT faces challenges such as low overall response rates and the emergence of immune-related adverse events. To overcome these hurdles, researchers are exploring new immune checkpoints. CD300A, a type-I transmembrane protein with immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory ...

Liberals and conservatives differ on climate change beliefs—but are relatively united in taking action

2024-05-09
The division between liberals and conservatives on both climate-change beliefs and related policy support is long-standing. However, the results of a newly released global experiment show that despite these differences, the two camps actually align when it comes to taking certain actions to combat climate change. The study, led by researchers at New York University, finds that when given the opportunity, liberals and conservatives take action to address climate change at roughly the same levels—and that ...

Biogeographical evidence shows trickster animal folklore limited by environmental factors

Biogeographical evidence shows trickster animal folklore limited by environmental factors
2024-05-09
Humans have the capacity to imagine civilizations and creatures that have never existed, and our language reflects that ability. It would therefore be understandable if the stories we tell ourselves stretched beyond the bounds of local ecology. However, research has shown that many cultural artifacts and ideas are strongly affected by environmental factors. Researchers in Japan wanted to know if the biogeography of a region could constrain motifs in animal folklore. To do this, they studied the distribution of animal trickster folklore against the distribution of the animal the folklore ...

Researchers harness blurred light to 3D print high quality optical components

Researchers harness blurred light to 3D print high quality optical components
2024-05-09
WASHINGTON — Canadian researchers have developed a new 3D printing method called blurred tomography that can rapidly produce microlenses with commercial-level optical quality. The new method may make it easier and faster to design and fabricate a variety of optical devices. “We purposely added optical blurring to the beams of light used for this 3D printing method to manufacture precision optical components,” said Daniel Webber from the National Research Council of Canada. “This enables production of optically smooth surfaces.” In Optica, Optica Publishing Group’s journal for high-impact research, these researchers demonstrate the new method by using ...

Older adults with aggressive blood cancer are responsive to treatment and show prolonged survival

2024-05-09
(WASHINGTON, May 9, 2024) – Standard of care treatment for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is safe and effective for adults over 80, according to a study published in Blood Neoplasia. For roughly a quarter of patients, this treatment can durably prolong survival. AML is an aggressive and often deadly form of blood cancer that can be difficult to treat. For older adults with AML, the conventional treatment consists of a medication called venetoclax combined with a hypomethylating agent (HMA), also known as VEN-HMA. AML treatment is often intensive and can significantly suppress the immune system ...
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