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Behavioral health integration helps practices address patients' socioeconomic needs

2021-07-14
Lessons from Primary Care and Behavioral Health Integration Should Inform Health Care Practices to Identify and Address Patients' Social, Economic Needs Although interest is accelerating around addressing patients' social and economic needs, effective and sustainable strategies for integrating social care practices into health care delivery have not yet been identified. This paper synthesizes learnings from primary care and behavioral health care integration and translates them into organizing principles with the goal of advancing social care integration practices ...

New spray could someday help heal damage after a heart attack

2021-07-14
Heart attack, or myocardial infarction, is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Although modern surgical techniques, diagnostics and medications have greatly improved early survival from these events, many patients struggle with the long-term effects of permanently damaged tissue, and the 5-year mortality rate remains high. Now, researchers reporting in ACS Nano have developed a minimally invasive exosome spray that helped repair rat hearts after myocardial infarction. Scientists have explored using stem cell therapy as a way to regrow tissue after a heart attack. But introducing stem cells directly to the heart can be risky because they could trigger an immune response or grow uncontrollably, resulting in a tumor. Therefore, researchers have tried ...

Chinese health insurance achieves success decreasing diabetes medication usage, costs

2021-07-14
Approximately 642 million people are expected to be diagnosed with diabetes by 2040, with Asians representing more than 55% of cases. Researchers conducted the first large-scale study since the implementation of medical insurance in China to evaluate the complexity and cost of drug therapy for Asian people with diabetes. They used available treatment records from Beijing's medical insurance bureau from 2016 to 2018 and looked at five outcomes, including: 1) quantity of outpatient medications, 2) number of co-morbidities diagnosed, 3) estimated annual cost of the outpatient drug regimen, 4) drug therapy strategies for diabetic patients and 5) the most commonly ...

Floating into summer with more buoyant, liquid-proof life jackets, swimsuits (video)

Floating into summer with more buoyant, liquid-proof life jackets, swimsuits (video)
2021-07-14
Summertime is here, and that often means long, lazy days at the beach, water skiing and swimming. Life jackets and swimsuits are essential gear for these activities, but if not dried thoroughly, they can develop a gross, musty smell. Now, researchers reporting in ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces have developed a one-step method to create a buoyant cotton fabric for these applications that is also oil- and water-repellant. Watch a video of the fabric here. Waterproof and oil-proof fabrics are in high demand for recreational water activities because of their low drag and self-cleaning properties. And while cotton is a popular fabric, it's hydrophilic, so most liquids and dirt can easily mess it ...

Primary care practice characteristics make little impact on unplanned hospital admissions

2021-07-14
Given the aging world population, there is international interest in helping older people live longer and healthier lives. Avoiding unplanned hospital admissions is an important aspect of care for older people. Palapar et al focused on the way primary care practice characteristics influence outcomes such as unplanned hospitalizations, function and well-being. They investigated the variability in older people's outcomes by primary care physician and practice characteristics in New Zealand and the Netherlands. Findings revealed that none of the physician or practice characteristics ...

Minority physicians experience more diversity, less burnout in family medicine practice

2021-07-14
More than 40% of physicians in the United States reported at least one symptom of burnout, which is particularly high among family physicians. This study examined a nationally-representative sample of family physicians to determine whether physician race-ethnicity was associated with burnout among a nationally-representative sample of family physicians. Of the 3,0916 physicians studied, 450 (15%) were from racial-ethnic groups underrepresented in medicine (UIM), which include Blacks/African Americans, Hispanics/Latinos, American Indians and Pacific Islanders who together comprise 30-35% of the general population yet account for only 12.4% of family physicians. The study findings support the researchers' hypothesis ...

Integration of social care into health care: Our collective path ahead

2021-07-14
Drs. Alicia Cohen and Emilia De Marchis provide commentary on three articles in this issue of Annals of Family Medicine, specifically Greenwood-Ericksen et al's research on Michigan's Federally Qualified Health Centers; Hoeft et al's special report about translating lessons learned from behavioral health integration into the social care realm; and Fessler et al's narrative about how they as medical students stepped away from their medical clerkships to act as community volunteers for people experiencing homelessness during the COVID-19 pandemic. All three articles serve as a timely call to action, reminding those in health care that work remains to meet the needs of patients, particularly in screening for and intervening on identified social risks. The urgency of this work has only been ...

Detecting wildlife illness and death with new early alert system

Detecting wildlife illness and death with new early alert system
2021-07-14
From domoic acid poisoning in seabirds to canine distemper in raccoons, wildlife face a variety of threats and illnesses. Some of those same diseases make their way to humans and domestic animals in our increasingly shared environment. A new early detection surveillance system for wildlife helps identify unusual patterns of illness and death in near real-time by tapping into data from wildlife rehabilitation organizations across California. This system has the potential to expand nationally and globally. It was created by scientists at the University of California Davis' School of Veterinary Medicine with partners at the California Department of Fish and Wildlife ...

Small molecule plays outsize role in controlling nanoparticle

2021-07-14
ITHACA - Ligands are much like nanosized barnacles, binding to many kinds of surfaces. This form of adsorption is crucial for a range of chemical processes, from purification and catalysis to the design of nanomaterials. However, understanding how ligands interact with the surface of nanoparticles has been a challenge to study. Adsorbed ligands are difficult to identify because there are other molecules in the mix, and nanoparticle surfaces are uneven and multifaceted, which means they require incredibly high spatial resolution to be scrutinized. Cornell researchers led by Peng Chen, the Peter J.W. Debye Professor of Chemistry in the College of Arts and Sciences, have used a breakthrough imaging technique they ...

The hidden culprit killing lithium-metal batteries from the inside

The hidden culprit killing lithium-metal batteries from the inside
2021-07-14
ALBUQUERQUE, N.M. -- For decades, scientists have tried to make reliable lithium-metal batteries. These high-performance storage cells hold 50% more energy than their prolific, lithium-ion cousins, but higher failure rates and safety problems like fires and explosions have crippled commercialization efforts. Researchers have hypothesized why the devices fail, but direct evidence has been sparse. Now, the first nanoscale images ever taken inside intact, lithium-metal coin batteries (also called button cells or watch batteries) challenge prevailing theories and could help make future high-performance batteries, such as for electric vehicles, safer, more powerful and longer lasting. "We're learning that we should be using separator materials tuned for ...

Melanoma of the eye: Preclinical tests show path toward treatment

Melanoma of the eye: Preclinical tests show path toward treatment
2021-07-14
BIRMINGHAM, Ala. - Uveal melanoma, or UM, is a rare and deadly cancer of the eye, and the mortality rate has remained unimproved for 40 years. Half of the melanomas spread to other organs of the body, causing death in less than a year, so new treatments to preserve vision and prevent death are an urgent need. Now a preclinical study by researchers at the University of Alabama at Birmingham and Emory University, Atlanta, offers hope -- a small molecule inhibitor has been identified that dampens the potent drivers of this tumor. In mouse models, the inhibitor, KCN1, strongly limited primary disease in the eye and metastatic tumor dissemination ...

Male beetles' spiny genitalia both harmful and beneficial to females

Male beetles spiny genitalia both harmful and beneficial to females
2021-07-14
Male seed beetles with genital structures that injure females may have greater reproductive success. As new research from Uppsala University shows, females that mate with such males benefit, in the sense that their offspring are healthier. This new piece of the puzzle will help scientists to understand how complex mating interactions between males and females have developedevolved. The study is published in Proceedings of the Royal Society B. "This helps us understand is connected with the evolutionary dance between males and females of all animal species, ...

Scientists identify new gut-liver drug recycling process

Scientists identify new gut-liver drug recycling process
2021-07-14
A team of University of Houston pharmaceutical researchers is reporting a newly recognized process of drug metabolism in the intestines - followed by recycling through the liver - that could have important implications for developing treatments for intestinal diseases and for taking multiple medications at the same time. "The intestines play a crucial role in metabolizing and recycling certain plant compounds and drugs," reports Ming Hu, Diana S-L. Chow Endowed Professor of Drug Discovery and Development and the senior author of the paper in eLife. "The discovery has important implications for scientists trying to understand how ...

USGS-led study helps in the fight against the coronavirus pandemic

2021-07-14
A new study led by the U.S. Geological Survey outlines a means to better estimate COVID-19 occurrence and trends in populations. Currently, COVID-19 testing is primarily limited to self-selected individuals, many of whom are symptomatic or have had contact with someone who is symptomatic. While these tests are useful for individual medical treatment and contact tracing, they do not provide health officials with a complete picture of the disease across the population. "Coordinated sampling of COVID-19 is key to informing health officials as they continue their efforts to control the pandemic, permitting better predictions of disease dynamics and ...

Antibiotics in early life could affect brain development

Antibiotics in early life could affect brain development
2021-07-14
Antibiotic exposure early in life could alter human brain development in areas responsible for cognitive and emotional functions, according to a Rutgers researcher. The laboratory study, published in the journal iScience, suggests that penicillin changes the microbiome - the trillions of beneficial microorganisms that live in and on our bodies - as well as gene expression, which allows cells to respond to its changing environment, in key areas of the developing brain. The findings suggest reducing widespread antibiotic use or using alternatives when possible to prevent neurodevelopment problems. Penicillin and related medicines (like ampicillin and amoxicillin) are the most widely used antibiotics in ...

Hydrogel composite developed to help protective gear rapidly degrade toxic nerve agents

2021-07-14
Scientists at Northwestern University in Evanston, Illinois have developed a hydrogel integrated with zirconium-based robust metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) that rapidly degrades organophosphate-based nerve agents used in chemical warfare. Unlike existing powdered MOF adsorbents, this hydrogel composite does not require added water and may be easily scaled up for use in protective masks or clothing. The work appears July 14 in the journal Chem Catalysis. "Organophosphate-based nerve agents are among the most toxic chemicals known to humanity," says senior author Omar Farha, a professor of chemistry at Northwestern University. "Their use in recent global conflicts reflects the urgent need for personal protective gear, as well as the bulk destruction of ...

Fungi that live in the gut influence health and disease

Fungi that live in the gut influence health and disease
2021-07-14
(Salt Lake City) - Bacteria's role in gut health has received a lot of attention in recent years. But new research led by scientists at END ...

Researchers identify signaling molecule that may help prevent Alzheimer's disease

2021-07-14
BOSTON - New research in humans and mice identifies a particular signaling molecule that can help modify inflammation and the immune system to protect against Alzheimer's disease. The work, which was led by investigators at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH), is published in Nature. Cognitive decline associated with Alzheimer's disease develops when neurons begin to die. "Neuron death can be caused by improper immune responses and excessive neuroinflammation--or inflammation in the brain--triggered by high levels of amyloid beta deposits and tau tangles, two hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease," explains the paper's co-senior author Filip Swirski, PhD, who conducted the work while a principal investigator in the Center for Systems Biology at MGH. ...

Researchers discover how hunger boosts learning about food in mice

2021-07-14
BOSTON - Over the last decade, investigators at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center (BIDMC) have been at the forefront of the effort to END ...

Newfound human brain cell type helps center people in mental maps

2021-07-14
New York, NY--July 14, 2021-- A previously unknown kind of human brain cell appears to help people center themselves in their personal maps of the world, according to a new study from neuroscientists at Columbia Engineering. This discovery sheds light on the cellular mechanisms underlying navigation and memory in humans, as well as what parts of the brain might get disrupted during the kinds of memory impairments common in neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's. There are two strategies with which humans and animals navigate and orient themselves. One involves locating places, distances and directions in "allocentric" or other-centered ...

Changes in admissions to specialty addiction treatment facilities in California during COVID-19 pandemic

2021-07-14
What The Study Did: The COVID-19 pandemic was associated with a decline in addiction treatment initiations but more research is needed to understand the cause of the decline in initiations and the extent to which it was due to reduced demand for services or reduced ability to supply treatment. Authors: Tami L. Mark, Ph.D., M.B.A., of RTI International in Rockville, Maryland, is the corresponding author. To access the embargoed study: Visit our For The Media website at this link https://media.jamanetwork.com/ (doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.17029) Editor's Note: The article ...

Effect of physician-delivered COVID-19 public health messages on adults' knowledge, beliefs, practices related to COVID-19

2021-07-14
What The Study Did: In this randomized clinical trial, a physician messaging campaign was effective in increasing COVID-19 knowledge, information-seeking and self-reported protective behaviors among diverse groups. Authors: Esther Duflo, Ph.D., of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge, is the corresponding author. To access the embargoed study: Visit our For The Media website at this link https://media.jamanetwork.com/ (doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.17115) Editor's Note: The article includes conflict of interest and funding/support disclosures. Please see the article for additional information, including other authors, author contributions and affiliations, conflict of interest and financial disclosures, and funding and support. #  #  ...

Symptoms of depression, anxiety among women experiencing homelessness/unstable housing during pandemic

2021-07-14
What The Study Did: About half the women experiencing homelessness and unstable housing who were surveyed experienced symptoms of depression or anxiety or both during the pandemic and, in addition to unmet subsistence needs and social isolation, these symptoms were associated with increased challenges accessing non-COVID-19 care and managing symptoms for chronic medical conditions. Authors: Elise D. Riley, Ph.D., M.P.H., of the University of California, San Francisco, is the corresponding author. To access the embargoed study: Visit our For The Media website at this link https://media.jamanetwork.com/ (doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.17035) Editor's ...

Association of socioeconomic characteristics with disparities in COVID-19 outcomes in Japan

2021-07-14
What The Study Did: This study found an unequal pattern of COVID-19 outcomes that was associated with the socioeconomic circumstances in regions of Japan, suggesting that these disparities in COVID-19 outcomes aren't unique to the United States and Europe. Authors: Yuki Yoshikawa, M.D., M.P.H., of the Harvard T.H.Chan School of Public Health in Boston, is the corresponding author. To access the embargoed study: Visit our For The Media website at this link https://media.jamanetwork.com/ (doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.17060) Editor's Note: Please see the article for additional information, including other authors, author contributions and affiliations, conflict of interest and financial disclosures, and funding and support. #  ...

UCLA research finds the US lags 79 other nations in preventing child immigration detention

UCLA research finds the US lags 79 other nations in preventing child immigration detention
2021-07-14
The COVID-19 pandemic has amplified calls to end the detention of migrant children, as cases surge among children held in crowded conditions; yet immigration detention's threats to children's fundamental rights did not begin with the current public health crisis. Unlike nearly three-quarters of high-income countries, however, the U.S. has no laws specifically limiting the detention of accompanied migrant and asylum-seeking children, according to a new study by the UCLA Fielding School of Public Health's END ...
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