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Limiting incident NA for efficient wavefront shaping through thin anisotropic scattering media

Limiting incident NA for efficient wavefront shaping through thin anisotropic scattering media
2021-07-14
A team of researchers, affiliated with UNIST has succeeded in developing a new optical microscope technology, capable of deeper imaging beyond the biological tissues. This breakthrough has been led by Professor Jung-Hoon Park and his research team in the Department of Biomedical Engineering at UNIST. Optical imaging technology has emerged as an essential research tool for biomedical studies due to its high resolution and good tomography capability. However, the limited penetration depth of the optical microscope makes it difficult to observe biological tissues of more than 100 μm thickness. This is because strong light scattering, caused by various components ...

Encrypting photos on the cloud to keep them private

2021-07-14
New York, NY--July 13, 2021--The past decade has witnessed scandal after scandal over private images maliciously or accidentally made public. A new study from computer scientists at Columbia Engineering reveals what may be the first way to encrypt personal images on popular cloud photo services, such as those from Google, Apple, Flickr and others, all without requiring any changes to -- or trust in -- those services. Smartphones now make it easy for virtually everyone to snap photos, with market research firm InfoTrends estimating that people now take more than a trillion photos each year. The limited ...

Banishing bandits: Other countries bear the cost

Banishing bandits: Other countries bear the cost
2021-07-14
A new study reveals the strategies that stop bandits from illegally fishing in Australian waters--but warns there is a cost to the region's poorer countries. Co-author Dr Brock Bergseth, from the ARC Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies at James Cook University, said poachers are simply following the recurring history of human fishing: intensively fish and devastate local resources, then move further afield to--in these cases--fish illegally or poach in other countries' waters. "Millions of people rely on fish and seafood and when offered no alternative choice, will chose banditry and illegal fishing ...

Cocoa bean DNA testing offers path to end slavery and child labour in chocolate industry

2021-07-14
A new method of DNA testing on cocoa beans could revolutionise the chocolate industry, offering consumers greater reassurance about the origins and ethics of their beloved confectionery, and giving the global cocoa industry a precision tool to help end slavery and child labour. Researchers from the University of Bath, University of the West of England, and Surrey Business School have proven a low-cost method which compares DNA in chocolate products to the cocoa when it is farmed. This means cocoa can be reliably traced back from an individual chocolate bar to the specific farms which cultivated the cocoa in it, a major advance on current fairtrading, certification and sustainability practices. "This has the potential to ...

Genome studies: More is not always better

Genome studies: More is not always better
2021-07-14
What the fruit fly is to zoologists, the thale cress is to botanists. The widespread herb with the botanical name Arabidopsis thaliana serves them as a model organism from which knowledge can be gained for other plants. It is therefore extremely well researched - also genetically. For example, it is now known that the genetic material of Arabidopsis thaliana (its genome) comprises around 125 million base pairs. It's like having a Lego manual in front of you that is 125 million letters long and contains everything you need to know to build an Arabidopsis plant. Similar to humans, different Arabidopsis specimens are generally not genetically identical. If you were to compare the construction manual of all plants of this species, you would encounter differences in about 10 million places, ...

A star in a distant galaxy blew up in a powerful explosion, solving an astronomical mystery

A star in a distant galaxy blew up in a powerful explosion, solving an astronomical mystery
2021-07-14
Dr. Iair Arcavi, a Tel Aviv University researcher at the Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences, participated in a study that discovered a new type of stellar explosion - an electron-capture supernova. While they have been theorized for 40 years, real-world examples have been elusive. Such supernovas arise from the explosions of stars 8-9 times the mass of the sun. The discovery also sheds new light on the thousand-year mystery of the supernova from A.D. 1054 that was seen by ancient astronomers, before eventually becoming the Crab Nebula, that we know today. A supernova is the explosion of a star following a ...

How corporate managers try to fix workplace injustices by giving employees secret perks

2021-07-14
A new study co-authored by the UBC Sauder School of Business has found that when senior managers mistreat workers, middle managers often attempt to quietly smooth things over. Robin Hood was known for stealing from the rich and giving to the poor -- but while he may have lived in Sherwood Forest centuries ago, he would have fit right in as a middle manager in today's business world. Studies have shown that when employees are mistreated by senior leaders, employees can often get back at them by doing things like gossiping, stealing office supplies or calling in sick when they're well. But according to new research from UBC Sauder, middle managers also get in on the act, and attempt to address workplace injustices by secretly helping out their subordinates ...

LETI's research will help apply magnetotactic bacteria in oncology

LETIs research will help apply magnetotactic bacteria in oncology
2021-07-14
Kamil Gareev, Associate Professor at ETU "LETI," justified the prospects of using magnetotactic bacteria to treat malignant tumors. LETI researchers identified the main properties of magnetotactic bacteria and described the possibilities of their application in medicine. The results obtained will help create theranostic agents in neurooncology and cardioprotection. The results of the joint study with colleagues from St. Petersburg State University, RAS Institute of Cytology, and RAS Institute of Biotechnology were published as an overview article in the journal Magnetochemistry. Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) are distinguished by their ability to synthesize magnetosomes, special cellular organelles in which magnetite biomineralization occurs. Thanks ...

'Greta Thunberg Effect' belies challenges for autistic community in going green

2021-07-14
Autistic people need extra help in going green say researchers behind a new study which argues for a more inclusive environmental agenda. Climate action movements are gathering extraordinary pace due to international campaigners like Greta Thunberg, whose autism has been well documented. Being autistic has been used to explain and celebrate, but also diminish and denigrate, her activism. Thunberg, for example, reports that being autistic is a psychological "gift" and "superpower" that underpins her environmental attitudes and behaviours. This has fuelled speculation - in the media and the general public - that autistic ...

Methamphetamine use drove surge in heart failure hospitalizations, costs in California

2021-07-14
DALLAS, July 14, 2021 -- Heart failure hospitalizations and costs related to methamphetamine use jumped sharply over a decade in California, according to new research published today in Circulation: Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes, an American Heart Association journal. "Our study results should bring urgent attention to this insidious yet rapidly growing form of severe heart failure - methamphetamine-related heart failure, which is taking the lives of young people, straining health care resources and threatening to spread like wildfire in California, the West and to the rest of the nation," ...

Like priming a pump, cells damaged by chronic lung disease can result in severe COVID

2021-07-14
PHOENIX, Ariz. -- July 14, 2021 -- The results of a study by an international scientific team co-led by the Translational Genomics Research Institute (TGen), an affiliate of City of Hope, suggest that -- like pouring water atop a wellhead before pumping -- the airway cells of patients with chronic lung diseases are "primed" for infection by the COVID-19 virus, resulting in more severe symptoms, poorer outcomes and a greater likelihood of death. The study -- published today in Nature Communications -- details the genetic changes caused by chronic lung disease in the molecular makeup of a variety of cells, including the epithelial cells that line the lung and airways. The ...

Rapid evolution in waterfleas yields new conservation insights

2021-07-14
The extraordinary ability of animals to rapidly evolve in response to predators has been demonstrated via genetic sequencing of a waterflea population across nearly two decades. In a new study, published in Nature Communications, scientists at the Universities of Birmingham in the UK, the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven in Belgium, and the Leibniz Institute for Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries (IGB), Berlin, were able to identify more than 300 genes that vary in the genome of the waterflea. These genes, which account for about about 3 per cent of all sequenced waterflea genes, ...

Quantum physics helps destroy cancer cells

Quantum physics helps destroy cancer cells
2021-07-14
Cancer cell death is triggered within three days when X-rays are shone onto tumor tissue containing iodine-carrying nanoparticles. The iodine releases electrons that break the tumor's DNA, leading to cell death. The findings, by scientists at Kyoto University's Institute for Integrated Cell-Material Sciences (iCeMS) and colleagues in Japan and the US, were published in the journal Scientific Reports. "Exposing a metal to light leads to the release of electrons, a phenomenon called the photoelectric effect. An explanation of this phenomenon by Albert Einstein in 1905 heralded the birth of quantum physics," says iCeMS molecular biologist Fuyuhiko Tamanoi, who led the study. "Our research provides ...

New WHO study links moderate alcohol use with higher cancer risk

New WHO study links moderate alcohol use with higher cancer risk
2021-07-14
July 14, 2021 (Toronto) A new study from the World Health Organization's (WHO) International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), published in the journal Lancet Oncology, has found an association between alcohol and a substantially higher risk of several forms of cancer, including breast, colon, and oral cancers. Increased risk was evident even among light to moderate drinkers (up to two drinks a day), who represented 1 in 7 of all new cancers in 2020 and more than 100,000 cases worldwide. In Canada, alcohol use was linked to 7,000 new cases of cancer in 2020, including 24 per cent of breast cancer cases, 20 per cent of colon cancers, 15 per cent of rectal cancers, and 13 per cent of oral and liver cancers. "All ...

Physicists describe sun's electric field

Physicists describe suns electric field
2021-07-14
As the Parker Solar Probe ventures closer to the sun, we are learning new things about our home star. In a new study, physicists led by the University of Iowa report the first definitive measurements of the sun's electric field, and how the electric field interacts with the solar wind, the fast-flowing current of charged particles that can affect activities on Earth, from satellites to telecommunications. The physicists calculated the distribution of electrons within the sun's electric field, a feat made possible by the fact that the Parker Solar Probe jetted within 0.1 astronomical units (AU), or a mere 9 million miles, from the sun--closer than any spacecraft has approached. From the electrons' distribution, the physicists ...

Hard to swallow: Coral cells seen engulfing algae for first time

2021-07-14
For the first time, scientists have seen stony coral cells engulf dinoflagellates - single-celled, photosynthetic algae that are crucial for keeping coral alive The researchers used a cell line called IVB5, which contains endoderm-like cells cultured from the stony coral, Acropora tenuis Around 40% of coral cells incorporated the algae in around 30 minutes and remained healthy for one month The research is a step towards understanding the partnership between coral and dinoflagellates and could shed light on how coral bleaching occurs In a world-first, scientists in Japan have observed individual stony coral cells engulfing single-celled, photosynthetic algae. The microscopic algae, known as dinoflagellates, were ...

COVID precautions may result in more breast cancer deaths

2021-07-14
A new paper in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute, published by Oxford University Press, indicates that disruptions in health care due to the COVID 19 pandemic may increase breast cancer deaths. In March 2020 public health measures prohibited most elective procedures, including mammography, due to hospital capacity and limited personal protective equipment. This reduced mammograms up to 80%. Breast cancer patients also experienced treatment delays and reductions in planned or expected chemotherapy treatments. Researchers here used three independently-developed breast cancer simulation models from the National Cancer Institute's Cancer Intervention and Surveillance Modeling Network to ...

Study finds "thriving gap" between students who attend high school remotely vs. in person

2021-07-14
Washington/Philadelphia, July 14, 2021--New research finds that high school students who attended school remotely during the COVID-19 pandemic suffered socially, emotionally, and academically compared with those who attended in person. The study was published today in Educational Researcher (ER) by researchers Angela L. Duckworth, Tim Kautz, Amy Defnet, Emma Satlof-Bedrick, Sean Talamas, Benjamin Lira, and Laurence Steinberg. ER is a peer-reviewed journal of the American Educational Research Association. "Many news stories have reported on individual stories of teenagers who have suffered from anxiety, depression, and other mental health challenges during the pandemic," said lead author Duckworth, ...

Oncotarget: CEA as a blood-based biomarker in anal cancer

Oncotarget: CEA as a blood-based biomarker in anal cancer
2021-07-14
Oncotarget published "CEA as a blood-based biomarker in anal cancer" which reported that the mean Carcinoembryonic Antigen (CEA) among subgroups by clinical status at the time of presentation to our institution was highest among those patients with metastatic Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal (SCCA) to visceral organs, however this finding was not statistically significant by ANOVA . By clinical subgroup, the percentage of patients with an abnormally elevated CEA was highest in those patients with metastatic disease to lymph nodes followed by recurrent/unresectable SCCA , and metastatic SCCA ...

A history of drug dependence is associated with negative mental health outcomes

2021-07-14
New research published online in the International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction found that Canadians with a history of drug dependence are much less likely to have flourishing mental health and are more likely to have mental illness. Researchers compared a nationally representative sample of 460 Canadians with a history of illicit drug dependence (excluding cannabis) to 20,305 Canadians with no history of illicit drug dependence using data drawn from Statistic Canada's Canadian Community Health Survey-Mental Health. While 80% of those with a history of drug dependence were in remission, more than half (52.1%) were still experiencing mental illness. Further, only 37.9% were in excellent mental health, which is markedly lower than the 74.1% of ...

Unlike other global crises, COVID-19 pandemic did not spark more smoking in its initial stage

2021-07-14
Unlike other population-level stressful events such as natural disasters, COVID-19 has not resulted in a net increase in smoking, according to a new study from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Project, at the University of Waterloo. The researchers also found that although nearly half of smokers reported that COVID-19 made them think about quitting, the vast majority of smokers did not change their smoking habits during the early phase of the COVID-19 pandemic. Led by Shannon Gravely, research assistant professor with the ITC Project, the study ...

How does the world use emojis?

2021-07-14
Before Millennials were over laugh-cry emojis, they were the most used emojis across the world, according to researchers at USC. The emoji was more popular than smiley faces say researchers who categorized millions of tweets across 30 countries and evaluated over 1700 emojis. Their study, "An empirical study of emoji usage on Twitter in linguistic and national contexts" was published in Online Social Networks and Media. Mayank Kejriwal, a research assistant professor in the Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, and a research lead at the USC Information Sciences Institute who is the lead author on the paper, says approximately 100 emojis are used most often. The most important take away? Emojis represent ...

Lateral flow tests are 95% effective at detecting Covid-19 when used at the onset of symptoms

2021-07-14
A new study by researchers at Queen Mary University of London, University of Oxford, Institute for Advanced Studies, Vienna, and the Medical University of Graz, has found that lateral flow tests detect Covid-19 with similar accuracy to laboratory-based PCR tests, providing they are used at the onset of infection and soon after symptoms start. Lateral flow tests are cheaper and produce a result in just 30 minutes - much faster than the time it takes to receive a PCR test result, which can take 1-3 days. The finding could be pivotal to national strategies ...

DNA from 1,600-year-old Iranian sheep mummy brings history to life

DNA from 1,600-year-old Iranian sheep mummy brings history to life
2021-07-14
A team of geneticists and archaeologists from Ireland, France, Iran, Germany, and Austria has sequenced the DNA from a 1,600-year-old sheep mummy from an ancient Iranian salt mine, Chehrābād. This remarkable specimen has revealed sheep husbandry practices of the ancient Near East, as well as underlining how natural mummification can affect DNA degradation. The incredible findings have just been published in the international, peer-reviewed journal Biology Letters. The salt mine of Chehrābād is known to preserve biological material. Indeed, it is in this mine that human remains of the famed "Salt Men" were recovered, dessicated by the salt-rich environment. The ...

Survival for babies born with a birth defect - a "post-code lottery"

2021-07-14
Survival for a baby born with a birth defect - otherwise known as a congenital anomaly - is a "post-code lottery", according to scientists from 74 countries. A study published today in The Lancet, led by researchers from King's College London, examined the risk of mortality for nearly 4000 babies born with birth defects in 264 hospitals around the world. The study found babies born with birth defects involving the intestinal tract have a two in five chance of dying in a low-income country compared to one in five in a middle-income country and one in twenty in a high-income country. Gastroschisis, a birth defect where the baby is born with ...
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