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What’s behind canned wine’s rotten egg smell? Cornell team IDs the culprit

2024-04-16
ITHACA, N.Y. – Cornell University researchers are working to eliminate the rotten egg aroma that sometimes accompanies canned wine by ever-so-slightly altering the product’s formulation and packaging, which is also prone to corrosion. In recent research, the team – led by Gavin Sacks and Julie Goddard, both professors of food science – found that the choice of the ultrathin plastic coating inside aluminum cans can go a long way towards improving the aroma of the beverage and the lifespan of its container. The collaboration began ...

Using generative AI, Insilico Medicine discovers new class of Polθ Inhibitors for BRCA-deficient cancers

Using generative AI, Insilico Medicine discovers new class of Polθ Inhibitors for BRCA-deficient cancers
2024-04-16
Building on the anti-tumor potential of Polθ inhibition in BRCA-deficient cancers, researchers at Insilico Medicine discovered a new class of orally bioavailable Polθ inhibitors designed using generative AI. For molecular generation, they used both ligand-based drug design (LBDD) and structure-based drug design (SBDD) strategies within the Chemistry42 generative chemistry engine. The new inhibitors demonstrated strong potency and promising druglike properties, highlighting AI’s potential in medicinal chemistry for precise molecular modifications. A crucial player in genomic integrity maintenance, DNA Polymerase Theta (Polθ) provides a potential synthetic lethal ...

New A.I. project will allow industrial robots to be more freethinking

2024-04-16
Robots are increasingly being used in industry, and in future they will need to adapt to unforeseen events and changes in their environment much more than today, including when they work with humans. A new international research project is addressing this issue using artificial intelligence. The project is being funded by Horizon Europe, the EU framework programme for research and innovation, with a grant of DKK 56 million (EUR 7.5 million) and is called RoboSapiens (Robotic Safe Adaptation In Unprecedented Situations). The RoboSapiens project will reduce ...

Computer scientist William Wang receives prestigious early career technical achievement award

Computer scientist William Wang receives prestigious early career technical achievement award
2024-04-16
(Santa Barbara, Calif.) — As artificial intelligence continues to boom, scaling algorithms to ever-increasing data sets also becomes a bigger hurdle. Such is the case in the domain of natural language processing (NLP), or, the effort to get machines to understand and communicate with human language (think: ChatGPT, search engines and other text-based modalities). “A key challenge in this domain is the tradeoff between scalability and accuracy,” said UC Santa Barbara computer scientist ...

UC Irvine researchers shine light on rapid changes in Arctic and boreal ecosystems

2024-04-16
Irvine, Calif., April 16, 2024 — Arctic and boreal latitudes are warming faster than any other region on Earth. In three new studies, Earth system scientists at the University of California, Irvine report how the ecosystems in these regions are changing.   In a study published in Global Change Biology, a team led by Earth system science Ph.D. candidate Jinhyuk Kim from the lab of James Randerson, professor of Earth system science, reveals how wildfires are increasing rates of photosynthesis in Canada and Alaska.    They find that increasing wildfires are wiping out black spruce forests that grow relatively slowly and contribute to the organic layer of the underlying ...

Trash to treasure – researchers turn metal waste into catalyst for hydrogen

Trash to treasure – researchers turn metal waste into catalyst for hydrogen
2024-04-16
Scientists have found a way to transform metal waste into a highly efficient catalyst to make hydrogen from water, a discovery that could make hydrogen production more sustainable. A team of researchers from the University of Nottingham's School of Chemistry and Faculty of Engineering have found that the surface of swarf, a byproduct of the metal machining industry, is textured with tiny steps and grooves on a nanoscale level. These textures can anchor atoms of platinum or cobalt, leading to an efficient electrocatalyst ...

Microplastics, algal blooms, seafood safety are public health concerns addressed by new Oceans and Human Health Centers

2024-04-16
For Immediate Release April 16, 2024 Microplastics, algal blooms, seafood safety are public health concerns addressed by new Oceans and Human Health Centers    NIH and NSF jointly fund new research centers to better understand how ocean-related exposures affect people’s health.  To address plastics and other problems that could affect human health, the NIH and the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) are jointly funding four new Centers for Oceans and Human Health and renewing two centers as part of a marine-related health research program. Each Center will focus on a different aspect ...

Alba Yerro-Colom to use National Science Foundation CAREER award to better predict and prevent landslides

2024-04-16
Almost one-fifth of the global land surface is classified as highly susceptible to rainfall-triggered landslides. According to the World Health Organization, landslides are more widespread than any other geological hazard to occur worldwide and are increasing because of climate change.  Alba Yerro-Colom, assistant professor in the Charles E. Via, Jr. Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, is motivated to advance the understanding of these natural occurrences while considering how vegetation and changes in rainfall patterns could better predict their potential damage. She ...

Researchers discover urine-based test to detect head and neck cancer

2024-04-16
Researchers from the University of Michigan Health Rogel Cancer Center have created a urine-based test that detects pieces of DNA fragments released by head and neck tumors. The test could potentially facilitate early detection of this cancer type, which currently does not have a reliable screening method. Human papillomavirus (HPV) is widely recognized for causing cervical cancer, but is increasingly found to cause cancers in the mouth, throat and other head and neck regions. Early detection is critical because detecting a cancer at ...

Moffitt treats first clinical trial patient with gamma delta CAR T for bone metastatic prostate cancer

2024-04-16
TAMPA, Fla. — Moffitt Cancer Center has treated its first patient in an investigator-initiated, phase 1 clinical trial investigating the safety and efficacy of a chimeric antigen receptor T-cell (CAR T) therapy for prostate cancer that has metastasized to the bone. Roughly 90% of men with advanced prostate cancer will develop bone metastases. The disease significantly impacts patients, causing extreme bone pain. The CAR T-cell therapy, developed in the lab of Moffitt immunologist Daniel Abate-Daga, PhD, utilizes gamma delta T cells to target a tumor biomarker highly expressed in bone metastatic prostate cancer called prostate stem cell antigen. ...

Wiley's latest natural products database release empowers drug discovery and research

Wileys latest natural products database release empowers drug discovery and research
2024-04-16
 Wiley, one of the world’s largest publishers and a global leader in research and learning, today announced the 2024 release of its Wiley Identifier of Natural Products (AntiBase Library + ChemWindow). With an extensive collection of over 95,000 compounds, this growing natural products database serves as a powerful drug discovery screening tool to narrow down possible novel compounds having antimicrobial, antitumor, or other desired effects. Additionally, it finds applications in food and cosmetics, agriculture, pesticides, and ...

Reproductive success improves after a single generation in the wild for descendants of some hatchery-origin Chinook salmon

2024-04-16
NEWPORT, Ore. – Researchers who created “family trees” for nearly 10,000 fish found that first-generation, wild-born descendants of hatchery-origin Chinook salmon in an Oregon river show improved fitness. The finding, based on data collected over 13 years, is encouraging for Chinook salmon recovery efforts, said Kathleen O’Malley, an associate professor at Oregon State University and the study’s senior author. In this study, fitness is measured by the number of adult offspring a fish produces, with higher fitness leading to more offspring. “Previous studies have shown that hatchery-origin Chinook salmon have lower reproductive success ...

New treatment method using plasma irradiation promotes faster bone healing

New treatment method using plasma irradiation promotes faster bone healing
2024-04-16
“Break a leg!” is a welcome blessing of good luck, but who wants to hear that they have actually broken a bone? What’s worse, fractures that are displaced or complex require surgery and possibly lengthy recovery times while the patient remains partly or wholly immobilized. Aiming to shorten recovery times, an Osaka Metropolitan University-led research group is focusing on plasma irradiation as a treatment method to speed up bone healing. The Department of Orthopedic Surgery’s Kosuke Saito, a graduate student in the Graduate School of Medicine, Associate Professor Hiromitsu Toyoda, and Professor Hiroaki ...

CNIC scientists identify therapeutic targets for the prevention of heart injury linked to cancer treatment

CNIC scientists identify therapeutic targets for the prevention of heart injury linked to cancer treatment
2024-04-16
Scientists at the Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Cardiovasculares (CNIC) have identified the mechanisms through which anthracyclines, a widely used class of anticancer drugs, damage the hearts of patients receiving this treatment. The study, published in the journal JACC: CardioOncology, also identifies possible treatments for this complication, which affects an estimated one third of cancer survivors.   More than 4 million people in Europe are diagnosed with cancer every year. Fortunately, survival rates have increased significantly thanks to improved treatments and advances in diagnosis. Anthracyclines, ...

Older males out-compete young males when it comes to extra-marital breeding

Older males out-compete young males when it comes to extra-marital breeding
2024-04-16
Young male blue tits are less successful in fathering offspring outside their breeding pair, not because of a lack of experience, but because they are outcompeted by older males, Bart Kempenaers and colleagues from the Max Planck Institute for Biological Intelligence in Germany report in a study publishing April 16th in the open-access journal PLOS Biology. Many birds form breeding pairs but will also mate and produce offspring outside of that pairing — known as “extra-pair” paternity. Inexperienced males in their first year of breeding ...

Using machine learning to identify patients with cancer that would benefit from immunotherapy

Using machine learning to identify patients with cancer that would benefit from immunotherapy
2024-04-16
A new study examines the development of two machine learning models to classify the immunophenotype of a cancer specimen. The digital pathology approach presented can characterize and classify cancer immunophenotypes in a reproducible and scalable fashion, holding promise for the application of such a. method to identify patients that may benefit from immunotherapy in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), according to the study published in the peer-reviewed journal AI in Precision Oncology. Click here to ...

NASA’s Fermi mission sees no gamma rays from nearby supernova

NASA’s Fermi mission sees no gamma rays from nearby supernova
2024-04-16
A nearby supernova in 2023 offered astrophysicists an excellent opportunity to test ideas about how these types of explosions boost particles, called cosmic rays, to near light-speed. But surprisingly, NASA’s Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope detected none of the high-energy gamma-ray light those particles should produce. On May 18, 2023, a supernova erupted in the nearby Pinwheel galaxy (Messier 101), located about 22 million light-years away in the constellation Ursa Major. The event, named SN 2023ixf, is the most luminous nearby supernova discovered since Fermi launched in ...

Neutrons rule the roost for cage-free lithium ions

Neutrons rule the roost for cage-free lithium ions
2024-04-16
An international team of scientists found a way to improve battery design that could produce safer, more powerful lithium batteries. The team used quasi-elastic neutron scattering at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to set the first benchmark, one-nanosecond, or one billionth of a second, for a mixture of lithium salt and an organic polymer electrolyte. “It all comes down to the study of materials,” said Eugene Mamontov, ORNL Chemical Spectroscopy group leader. “And polymer electrolytes won’t catch fire the way liquid electrolytes do in lithium batteries.” The team used the neutron technique to validate computer ...

Common HIV treatments may aid Alzheimer’s disease patients

Common HIV treatments may aid Alzheimer’s disease patients
2024-04-16
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) currently afflicts nearly seven million people in the U.S. With this number expected to grow to nearly 13 million by 2050, the lack of meaningful therapies represents a major unmet medical need. Scientists at Sanford Burnham Prebys have now identified promising real-world links between common HIV drugs and a reduced incidence of AD. The study, led by Jerold Chun, M.D., Ph.D., was published in Pharmaceuticals. Chun’s new research builds on his lab’s landmark ...

Turner to receive funding for Israel Institute Postdoctoral Fellowship

2024-04-16
John Turner, Professor, Religious Studies, is set to receive funding for: “Israel Institute Postdoctoral Fellowship.”  This funding will support a postdoctoral teaching fellow for three (3) academic years starting in fall 2024. Regarding the importance of this funding, Turner said, “Curricula across academic units at George Mason contain very little material about the modern State of Israel, a significant gap given the importance of the nation and region to contemporary politics and conflict. This grant will enable RELI to address this gap and add content on this important subject.” Turner will receive $248,460 from Israel ...

How AI improves physician and nurse collaboration

2024-04-16
With large language models that take notes during patient visits and algorithms that identify disease, artificial intelligence has begun to prove its worth as an assistant for physicians. But a new study from Stanford Medicine shows the potential of AI as a facilitator — one that helps doctors and nurses connect to achieve more efficient, effective patient care. The study, which published in JAMA Internal Medicine last month, describes an AI-based model in use at Stanford Hospital that ...

Diverse native wildflower plantings for pollinators in farmlands

Diverse native wildflower plantings for pollinators in farmlands
2024-04-16
Pollinators are declining rapidly, largely due to land conversion and intensification of agriculture. To mitigate their crisis, low-disturbance habitats, such as sown wildflower plantings (commonly known forms are wildflower strips at the edges of arable fields), could promote pollinators by restoration of their resources (food, sheltering and nesting habitats). However, comprehensive knowledge is lacking on how landscape context, spatial configuration and age of wildflower plantings, seasonality and flower composition affect pollinator communities, especially from East-Central Europe. To understand these effects, researchers from the HUN-REN Centre for Ecological Research, established ...

Study suggests adolescent stress may raise risk of postpartum depression in adults

2024-04-16
In a new study, a Johns Hopkins Medicine-led research team reports that social stress during adolescence in female mice later results in prolonged elevation of the hormone cortisol after they give birth. The researchers say this corresponds to the equivalent hormonal changes in postpartum women who were exposed to adverse early life experiences — suggesting that early life stress may underlie a pathophysiological exacerbation of postpartum depression (PPD).  The team’s findings, first published online Apr. 11, 2024, in Nature Mental Health, also suggest that current drug ...

New book gathers insights, methods from rising generation of Indigenous archaeologists

New book gathers insights, methods from rising generation of Indigenous archaeologists
2024-04-16
LAWRENCE —  A book co-edited by a University of Kansas scholar that collects the experiences and know-how of younger Indigenous archaeologists, titled “Indigenizing Archaeology: Putting Theory into Practice,” is newly published by the University Press of Florida.   Carlton Shield Chief Gover, acting assistant professor of anthropology and acting assistant curator of archaeology at KU, conceived and co-edited the new volume. Its chapters include lessons and case studies from the discipline.  “This is the first book to our knowledge completely comprised of Indigenous scholars in ...

Scientists identify cell vulnerability ‘fingerprint’ related to Parkinson’s, Lewy body dementia

Scientists identify cell vulnerability ‘fingerprint’ related to Parkinson’s, Lewy body dementia
2024-04-16
GRAND RAPIDS, Mich. (April 16, 2024) — A new study from Van Andel Institute scientists offers a first look into the complex molecular changes that occur in brain cells with Lewy bodies, which are key pathological hallmarks of Parkinson’s disease and some dementias. The findings, published in the journal Nature Communications, reveal that brain cells with Lewy bodies exhibit a specific gene expression pattern akin to a disease-related fingerprint. “We’ve long known that Lewy bodies play a role in Parkinson’s and other neurodegenerative diseases but there are still many ...
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