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New study identifies two proteins that may contribute to stroke recurrence

2024-07-22
EMBARGOED UNTIL 2 p.m. Monday, July 22, 2024 Contact: Jillian McKoy ,jpmckoy@bu.edu Michael Saunders, msaunder@bu.edu Jarka Meleszkiewicz, jarka.meleszkiewicz@bristol.ac.uk ## New Study Identifies Two Proteins That May Contribute to Stroke Recurrence The study discovered genetic markers in inflammation that may be related to a second stroke or other major cardiovascular event following a stroke. These findings could help identify drug targets to mitigate stroke-related disability and mortality. People who experience an arterial ischemic stroke (AIS) or transient ischemic stroke (TIA) are at an increased risk of suffering a second stroke or other major adverse cardiovascular ...

Virtual reality training for physicians aims to heal disparities in Black maternal health care

Virtual reality training for physicians aims to heal disparities in Black maternal health care
2024-07-22
CHAMPAIGN, Ill. — During a checkup with her obstetrician, Marilyn Hayes tells him about overwhelming exhaustion and possible symptoms of postpartum depression, such as feeling unsafe. Hayes, a Black woman, grows increasingly frustrated as her white, male physician, Dr. Richard Flynn, dismisses her symptoms and ignores her wishes when she refuses medication. Hayes becomes visibly uncomfortable when Flynn touches her without permission and makes comments steeped in Black stereotypes, such as assuming that ...

Science, Social Studies classes can help young English-learning students learn to read and write in English

2024-07-22
A new study finds that science and social studies classes may also help young students learn English, even when those classes include difficult and technical vocabulary. The study, which observed first- and second-grade students in 30 elementary schools in North Carolina, encouraged teachers to keep their English-learning students in class during science and social studies lessons. Science and social studies textbooks in those grades are often relatively technical and difficult for students, so traditional teaching methods in North Carolina encourage teachers to remove English-learning students from those content classes ...

Wijesekera receives funding for FHWA driving simulator support research: Hands-on support for CDA/CARMA - ARCHER Integration Phase I

2024-07-22
Duminda Wijesekera, Professor, Cybersecurity Engineering; Professor, Computer Science, received funding for the project: “FHWA Driving Simulator Support Research: Hands-on support for CDA/CARMA - ARCHER Integration Phase I.” He will evaluate and test the Nvidia Drive Sim to understand functionality, behaviors, limitations, and interfaces that would be required in full integration.  Nvidia Drive Sim is a simulation platform for autonomous vehicles. He will also work to discern the ...

Study: Retail viability in Fairfax City mixed use development

2024-07-22
Center for Retail Transformation (CRT) and Center for Real Estate Entrepreneurship (CREE) jointly received funding to study retail viability led by Mehmet Altug, Associate Professor, Information Systems and Operations Management and Director of CRT, Costello College of Business. Led by Mehmet Altug, the two centers CRT and CREE at Costello College of Business have teamed up to determine market-specific retail opportunities within Fairfax City, specifically within five Small Area Plans. The project will specifically consider ...

Converting captured carbon to fuel: Study assesses what’s practical and what’s not

2024-07-22
The struggle to cut emissions is real.  Last year, the world emitted more than 37 billion metric tons of carbon dioxide, setting a new record high. As a result, sucking CO2 out of the atmosphere has become an increasingly popular idea. Governments worldwide are banking on this technology, called direct air capture, to help them achieve climate goals and avoid the worst consequences of climate change.  But despite more than a dozen direct air capture facilities being up and running around the globe already, the technology ...

University of Houston flexes scientific muscle with breakthrough in skeletal muscle regeneration

University of Houston flexes scientific muscle with breakthrough in skeletal muscle regeneration
2024-07-22
Newly published research from the University of Houston College of Pharmacy identifies key mechanisms of skeletal muscle regeneration and growth of muscles following resistance exercise. It’s a finding that opens the door to the development of targeted therapies for various muscle disorders, like Muscular Dystrophy, which affect millions of people worldwide.  When it comes to muscles and muscle disorders, the importance of a discovery like this cannot be overstated.    The muscle of muscles  The ...

Argonne-led research working toward reducing electronic waste with biodegradable luminescent polymers

Argonne-led research working toward reducing electronic waste with biodegradable luminescent polymers
2024-07-22
From your car’s navigation display to the screen you are reading this on, luminescent polymers — a class of flexible materials that contain light-emitting molecules — are used in a variety of today’s electronics. Luminescent polymers stand out for their light-emitting capability, coupled with their remarkable flexibility and stretchability, showcasing vast potential across diverse fields of application.   However, once these electronics reach their end use, they are discarded, piling up in landfills or buried underground. Recycling this electronic waste is complex, requiring expensive ...

B cell biohack: USC engineers immune cells to churn out custom antibodies

2024-07-22
USC scientists have discovered a way to turn the body’s B cells into tiny surveillance machines and antibody factories that can pump out specially designed antibodies to destroy cancer cells or HIV, two of medicine’s most formidable foes. The research, published today in Nature Biomedical Engineering, describes a technique for editing the genes of immune cells called B cells, turbocharging them to fight even the sneakiest invaders. The work is an important advance in harnessing the power of antibodies to treat conditions ranging from Alzheimer’s ...

Understanding how a red seaweed reduces methane emissions from cows

2024-07-22
Methane is the second-largest contributor to climate warming after carbon dioxide, and so scientists have put a lot of attention toward addressing one of the top sources: methane emissions from livestock. In other words, cow burps are bad for the planet. Farmers add various seaweeds to cow diets as a source of protein, unsaturated fats, and other health-promoting ingredients that provide immediate energy, says Dipti Pitta of the University of Pennsylvania School of Veterinary Medicine, and a 2016 study in Australia found that feeding sheep a species ...

Genome study informs restoration of American chestnut tree

Genome study informs restoration of American chestnut tree
2024-07-22
Native trees adapt to the climate and environmental conditions of their area to survive. Researchers in the College of Natural Resources and Environment in collaboration with the American Chestnut Foundation confirmed this by examining the genome of American chestnut trees sampled throughout the Appalachian Mountain range and grouping the samples according to their specific environmental region. The research, recently published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences journal, has the potential to help the ...

Improved efficacy of pembrolizumab when combined with sEphB4-HSA in HPV-negative EphrinB2-positive HNSCC

Improved efficacy of pembrolizumab when combined with sEphB4-HSA in HPV-negative EphrinB2-positive HNSCC
2024-07-22
“Future development for sEphB4-HSA in HNSCC is likely to focus on patients with HPV-negative disease where there is greatest need to improve on the outcomes with pembrolizumab monotherapy.” BUFFALO, NY- July 22, 2024 – A new research paper was published in Oncotarget's Volume 15 on July 10, 2024, entitled, “Improved efficacy of pembrolizumab combined with soluble EphB4-albumin in HPV-negative EphrinB2 positive head neck squamous cell carcinoma.” Patients with relapsed or metastatic head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) after primary local ...

Sleep and social media in tweens: Tips for better rest

2024-07-22
Toronto, ON - The US Surgeon General recently recommended a warning label for social media platforms due to concerns about their impact on youth mental health. The Surgeon General’s Advisory on Social Media and Youth Mental Health highlighted potential links between social media use and poor sleep quality in youth. Considering these concerns, what specific actions can adolescents and parents take to improve sleep? A new national study, published in the Journal of Adolescent Health, offers insights into screen habits linked with better sleep. “Ensuring adolescents get enough sleep is vital, as it supports ...

Effect of cash benefits on health care utilization and health

2024-07-22
About The Study: In this randomized study, individuals who received a cash benefit had significantly fewer emergency department visits, including those related to behavioral health and substance use, fewer admissions to the hospital from the emergency department, and increased use of outpatient subspecialty care. Study results suggest that policies that seek to alleviate poverty by providing income support may have important benefits for health and access to care.  Corresponding Author: To contact the corresponding author, Sumit D. Agarwal, M.D., M.P.H., Ph.D., email sagarwal14@bwh.harvard.edu. To access the embargoed study: Visit our For The Media ...

Mendelian randomization analysis for intestinal disease: Achievement and future

Mendelian randomization analysis for intestinal disease: Achievement and future
2024-07-22
Traditional epidemiological studies have identified numerous potential risk factors, but observational studies have struggled to establish causal links due to confounding factors and reverse causation. Theoretically avoiding confounding and reverse causation, Mendelian randomization (MR) infers causality, offering novel research perspectives and methods for investigating risk factors of intestinal diseases (Figure 1). MR research on intestinal disease Based on MR methodology, researchers have identified lifestyle factors, circulating nutrients, and obesity as being associated with the risk of ...

Improving the design of mRNA-loaded nanocarriers for targeted therapies

Improving the design of mRNA-loaded nanocarriers for targeted therapies
2024-07-22
Among the vastly different ways of tackling a disease, controlling the genetic expression of cells is undoubtedly one of the most powerful. Over the past few decades, scientists have come up with dozens of innovative strategies that involve using messenger RNA (mRNA) to ‘force’ cells to build specific proteins. These mRNA-based therapies have recently gained prominence as vaccines against infectious diseases like COVID-19. Additionally, they hold significant potential for treating cancer and genetic disorders. Since mRNA itself is ...

Chimpanzees gesture back and forth quickly like in human conversations

Chimpanzees gesture back and forth quickly like in human conversations
2024-07-22
When people are having a conversation, they rapidly take turns speaking and sometimes even interrupt. Now, researchers who have collected the largest ever dataset of chimpanzee “conversations” have found that they communicate back and forth using gestures following the same rapid-fire pattern. The findings are reported on July 22 in the journal Current Biology. “While human languages are incredibly diverse, a hallmark we all share is that our conversations are structured with fast-paced turns of just 200 milliseconds on average,” ...

Deep-ocean floor produces its own oxygen

Deep-ocean floor produces its own oxygen
2024-07-22
An international team of researchers, including a Northwestern University chemist, has discovered that metallic minerals on the deep-ocean floor produce oxygen — 13,000 feet below the surface. The surprising discovery challenges long-held assumptions that only photosynthetic organisms, such as plants and algae, generate Earth’s oxygen. But the new finding shows there might be another way. It appears oxygen also can be produced at the seafloor — where no light can penetrate — to support the oxygen-breathing (aerobic) sea life living in complete darkness. The ...

Prenatal cannabis use and maternal pregnancy outcomes

2024-07-22
About The Study: The results of this cohort study suggest that prenatal cannabis use was associated with several adverse maternal health outcomes during pregnancy. Continued research is needed to understand whether characteristics of prenatal cannabis use (e.g., dose, mode, and timing) moderate these associations.  Corresponding Author: To contact the corresponding author, Kelly C. Young-Wolff, Ph.D., M.P.H., email kelly.c.young-wolff@kp.org. To access the embargoed study: Visit our For The Media ...

Prevalence of epilepsy in people of sexual and gender minoritized groups

2024-07-22
About The Study: The findings of this study suggest that sexual and gender minority adults in the U.S. have a disproportionate prevalence of epilepsy. The reasons for this disparity are likely complex and may be associated with biological and psychosocial determinants of health unique to this population; as such, these individuals are in need of protected access to medical care. Corresponding Author: To contact the corresponding author, Emily L. Johnson, M.D., M.P.H., email ejohns92@jhmi.edu. To access the embargoed study: Visit our For The Media website at this link https://media.jamanetwork.com/ (doi:10.1001/jamaneurol.2024.2243) Editor’s ...

Overground gait training with a wearable robot in children with cerebral palsy

2024-07-22
About The Study: In this randomized clinical trial, overground robot-assisted gait training using a wearable robot significantly improved gross motor function and gait pattern. This new torque-assisted wearable exoskeletal robot, based on assist-as-needed control, may complement standard rehabilitation by providing adequate assistance and therapeutic support to children with cerebral palsy. Corresponding Author: To contact the corresponding author, Min-Keun Song, M.D., Ph.D., email drsongmk@chonnam.ac.kr. To access the embargoed study: Visit our ...

Sexual and gender minorities are twice as likely to report active epilepsy

2024-07-22
What: Sexual and gender minorities (SGM)—individuals who identify as gay, lesbian, bisexual, queer, transgender, non-binary, or gender-diverse—are twice as likely to report active epilepsy compared to non-SGM individuals, based on a National Institutes of Health (NIH) analysis of data from the population-based National Health Information Survey. “Active epilepsy” means a person has been diagnosed with epilepsy and has had more than one seizure in the past year or is currently taking anti-seizure medication. This study suggests that epilepsy could be added to the growing ...

SARS-CoV-2 pandemic increases maternal deaths from non-respiratory causes, study finds

SARS-CoV-2 pandemic increases maternal deaths from non-respiratory causes, study finds
2024-07-22
During the peak of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, there was an increase in maternal mortality in Chile. This is confirmed by a natural population experiment based on data from the Department of Health Statistics and Information (DEIS) of the Chilean Ministry of Health. The research was published in PLOS Global Public Health. In a collaborative study, led by Professor Elard Koch, senior epidemiologist and founder of MELISA Institute (Chile), and conducted with a team of researchers from the Universidad Católica Sedes Sapientiae (Peru), the Pontificia Universidad ...

New precision medicine guidelines to improve patient care

New precision medicine guidelines to improve patient care
2024-07-22
A University of Virginia School of Medicine scientist and other top experts from around the world have developed the first comprehensive guidelines for reporting cutting-edge “precision medicine” research in a bid to improve patient care and health equity for people everywhere. Precision medicine aims to tailor treatments to individual patients to get the best possible outcomes. It does this by considering many different factors specific to the patient, such as the patient’s genetics, environment, lifestyle and more. But until now there have been no standardized guidelines for reporting precision ...

New research explores alcohol’s impact on the heart

2024-07-22
Research Highlights: Two new, basic research studies in rodents (mice and rats) analyzed the impacts that alcohol may have on the heart. In a mouse study, abnormal heart rhythms that can occur after a pattern of repeated simulation of binge drinking may be related to a spike in a stress protein found in the heart. Researchers tested a heart protective molecule to reduce the stress protein spike and the resulting irregular heart rhythms. In a study using rats that lacked estrogen production to simulate human menopause, alcohol exposure resulted ...
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