PRESS-NEWS.org - Press Release Distribution
PRESS RELEASES DISTRIBUTION

Evaluating the performance of AI-based large language models in radiation oncology

Evaluating the performance of AI-based large language models in radiation oncology
2024-02-09
(Press-News.org) A new study evaluates an artificial intelligence (AI)-based algorithm for autocontouring prior to radiotherapy in head and neck cancer. Manual contouring to pinpoint the area of treatment requires significant time, and an AI algorithm to enable autocontouring has been introduced.  The study is published in the peer-reviewed journal AI in Precision Oncology. Click here to read the article now. 

Nikhil Thaker, from Capital Health and Bayta Systems, and coauthors, evaluated the performance of various LLMs, including OpenAI’s GPT-3.5-turbo, GPT-4, GPT-4-turbo, Meta’s Llama-2 models, and Google’s PaLM-2-text-bison.The LLMs were given an exam comprised of 300 questions, and the answers were compared to Radiation Oncology trainee performance.

The results showed that OpenAI’s GPT-4-turbo had the best performance, with 74.2% correct answers, and all three Llama-2 models under-performed. The LLMs tended to excel in the area of statistics, but to underperform in clinical areas, with the exception of GPT-turbo, which performed comparably to upper-level radiation oncology trainees and superiorly to lower-level trainees. 

“Future research will need to evaluate the performance of models that are fine-tune trained in clinical oncology,” concluded the investigators. “This study also underscores the need for rigorous validation of LLM-generated information against established medical literature and expert consensus, necessitating expert oversight in their application in medical education and practice.”

“The study highlights the potential of generative AI to revolutionize radiation oncology education and practice. OpenAI's GPT-4-turbo demonstrates that AI can complement medical training, suggesting a future where AI aids in improving patient outcomes. It's essential, though, to validate these technologies rigorously and involve experts to ensure their reliable and effective use in healthcare,” says Douglas Flora, MD, Editor-in-Chief of AI in Precision Oncology. 

About the Journal
AI in Precision Oncology is the only peer-reviewed journal dedicated to the advancement of artificial intelligence applications in clinical and precision oncology. Spearheaded by Editor-in-Chief Douglas Flora, MD and supported by a diverse and accomplished team of international experts, the Journal provides a high-profile forum for cutting-edge research and frontmatter highlighting important research and industry-related advances rapidly developing within the field. For complete information, visit the AI in Precision Oncology website.

About the Publisher
Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. is a global media company dedicated to creating, curating, and delivering impactful peer-reviewed research and authoritative content services to advance the fields of biotechnology and the life sciences, specialized clinical medicine, and public health and policy. For complete information, please visit the Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. website.

END

[Attachments] See images for this press release:
Evaluating the performance of AI-based large language models in radiation oncology Evaluating the performance of AI-based large language models in radiation oncology 2 Evaluating the performance of AI-based large language models in radiation oncology 3

ELSE PRESS RELEASES FROM THIS DATE:

Sandia awarded for outstanding work in technology transfer

Sandia awarded for outstanding work in technology transfer
2024-02-09
ALBUQUERQUE, N.M. — One of Sandia National Laboratories’ core missions is to help the world through innovation. However, transferring some of that innovation from the Labs to industry isn’t always an easy process. Through hard work and ingenuity, some Sandia employees are excelling at moving technology to market, a feat that is now being honored by the Federal Laboratory Consortium. The consortium, composed of more than 300 members nationwide, provides a forum to develop strategies and opportunities for linking laboratory technologies and expertise in the marketplace. Regional Technology Transfer Award: Disinfectant ...

Evaluating AI-based nodal contouring in head and neck cancer

Evaluating AI-based nodal contouring in head and neck cancer
2024-02-09
A new study evaluates an artificial intelligence (AI)-based algorithm for autocontouring prior to radiotherapy in head and neck cancer. Manual contouring to pinpoint the area of treatment requires significant time, and an AI algorithm to enable autocontouring has been introduced.  The study is published in the peer-reviewed journal AI in Precision Oncology. Click here to read the article now.  Sushil Beriwal, from Allegheny Health Network, and Varian, and coauthors, analyzed 108 patients ...

The Lancet: Black women in the USA were murdered six times more often than White women between 1999 and 2020, state-level analysis indicates

2024-02-09
Analysis of racial disparities in US homicide rates indicates Black women were on average six times more likely to die by homicide than White women between 1999 and 2020. Homicide rates among Black women were significantly higher than for White women in all 30 states analysed, with some evidence suggesting the biggest differences are in states with the highest racial inequities. The greatest disparity in homicide rates was in Wisconsin in 2019-2020, when Black women were 20 times more likely to be ...

Study shows clinical benefit of new way of treating advanced ER+ breast cancer

2024-02-09
A research paper published today (8 February 2024) in The Lancet Oncology demonstrates that the drug enobosarm, a selective androgen receptor modulator which stimulates the male sex hormone receptor has anti-tumour effects in oestrogen receptor positive breast cancer patients. Lead author Professor Carlo Palmieri from the University of Liverpool and The Clatterbridge Cancer Centre NHS Foundation Trust, said: “These results are very encouraging – we have shown that in advanced/metastatic breast cancer ...

Repeat testing for pre-eclampsia does not lead to better outcomes for pregnant women, but a single test is still beneficial

2024-02-09
A single test to speed up diagnosis of a serious disease in pregnant women does not need to be repeated, new research has found. Results from the PARROT-2 trial, published today in the Lancet by researchers from King’s College London and funded by Jon Moulton Charitable Trust, Tommy’s Charity and the National Institute for Health and Care Research, has ruled out the need for routine repeat placental growth factor-based testing (PIGF) for all women with suspected pre-eclampsia. PARROT-2 is a large, multi-centre UK trial in 1,252 women ...

Industrial pollution leaves its mark in Mediterranean corals

Industrial pollution leaves its mark in Mediterranean corals
2024-02-09
UCL Press Release Under embargo until Friday 9 February, 00:01 UK time Industrial pollution leaves its mark in Mediterranean corals For the first time, pollutants from burning fossil fuels have been found embedded in corals, offering scientists a potential new tool to track the history of pollution, finds a new study led by UCL researchers. The study, published in the journal Science of the Total Environment, identified carbon particles emitted by burning fossil fuels embedded in the corals of Illa Grossa Bay, off the Columbretes Islands in the Mediterranean Sea. Finding this type of pollution – known as fly-ash or spheroidal carbonaceous particles (SCPs) ...

Urgent call for antitrust measures to safeguard innovation in spatial biology

Urgent call for antitrust measures to safeguard innovation in spatial biology
2024-02-09
Recent breakthroughs in spatial biology technology have transformed biomedical research; however, legal disputes are preventing small, innovative companies from advancing new technologies and ideas. Ongoing litigation poses a threat to the progress of even the most promising scientific technologies and the potential discoveries they could enable, according to the authors of the exclusive article titled “Sounding an Alarm Over Spatial Biology,” in Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology News (GEN). Click here to read the article ...

Pre-diabetes gets its due: New $1.2 million award aimed at early intervention and treatment

2024-02-09
SAN ANTONIO, Feb. 8, 2024 – More than one out of three people have pre-diabetes, characterized by abnormal blood sugar levels not yet in the diabetes range – and yet associated with significant increases in eye, kidney and neuropathic diseases, and risk of cardiovascular death. Moreover, the number of people with the condition is expected to double by 2030, with prevalence substantially higher in minority populations, including Hispanics. Both pre-diabetes and diabetes are considered global epidemics. As pre-diabetes largely is underdiagnosed and undertreated, ...

Celebrating excellence in anatomy: AAA awards distinguished members

Celebrating excellence in anatomy: AAA awards distinguished members
2024-02-08
ROCKVILLE, MD – February 8, 2024 – The American Association for Anatomy (AAA) is honored to announce its 2024 awards recipients. Eighteen of the association’s 2,455 members have been selected because they advanced AAA’s values: community, respect, inclusion, integrity, and discovery.   The AAA awards program provides over $650,000 in awards, research grants, and scholarships annually. Many recipients go on to achieve significant success in their careers.  "We, as anatomy ...

Athira Pharma announces publication in Frontiers in Neuroscience highlighting therapeutic potential of ATH-1105 in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)

2024-02-08
BOTHELL, WA, Feb. 8, 2024 — Athira Pharma, Inc. (NASDAQ: ATHA), a late clinical-stage biopharmaceutical company focused on developing small molecules to restore neuronal health and slow neurodegeneration, today announced publication of research highlighting the neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects of ATH-1105 in preclinical models of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The original research article, “ATH-1105, a small-molecule positive modulator of the neurotrophic HGF system, is neuroprotective, preserves neuromotor function, and extends survival in preclinical models of ALS,” authored by Berthiaume, A., and Reda, S., et al., was published ...

LAST 30 PRESS RELEASES:

Nanoscale topcoat can turbocharge supported gold nanoparticle catalysts

Beyond the ink: Painting with physics

Only 9 percent of older Americans were vaccinated against RSV before the disease hit this fall and winter

Evolution-capable AI promotes green hydrogen production using more abundant chemical elements

In wake of powerful cyclone, remarkable recovery of Pacific island’s forests

PSU study sheds light on 2020 extreme weather event that brought fires and snow to western US

Rice physicist earns NSF CAREER Award to revolutionize quantum technology

Mining the treasures locked away in produced water

Minoritized groups face high anxiety when taking part in research experiments

Orcas demonstrating they no longer need to hunt in packs to take down the great white shark

Scientists discover a novel vehicle for antibiotic resistance

Large-scale study explores link between smoking and DNA changes across six racial and ethnic groups

EU funding for outstanding early-career researcher Pieter Gunnink

Associate Professor Ron Korstanje, Ph.D., of The Jackson Laboratory named Evnin Family Chair

Researchers create coating solution for safer food storage

An overgrowth of nerve cells appears to cause lingering symptoms after recurrent UTIs

New findings on the immune system

Most smokers in England wrongly believe vaping is at least as harmful as smoking

New antibodies target “dark side” of influenza virus protein

Fred Hutch announces 2024 Harold M. Weintraub Graduate Student Award recipients

New academic journal on artificial intelligence launched

UMaine researchers use GPS-tracked icebergs in novel study to improve climate models

A mental process that leads to putting off an unpleasant task

The role of history in how efficient color names evolve

AI outperforms humans in standardized tests of creative potential

Study results show 25% of pregnant people are not getting enough omega-3 fatty acids from their diet or dietary supplements

Cleveland Clinic researchers uncover how virus causes cancer, point to potential treatment

SLU professor studies link between adversity, psychiatric and cognitive decline

Warwick to benefit from £2.5 million funding into “phenomenal” metamaterials

More schooling is linked to slowed aging and increased longevity

[Press-News.org] Evaluating the performance of AI-based large language models in radiation oncology