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Impact of sleep disturbance on recovery in veterans with PTSD and TBI

2015-08-21
(Boston)--Poor sleep may impact treatment and recovery in veterans with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI). A review of extensive research on sleep in TBI and PTSD has found that sleep-focused interventions can improve treatment outcomes in veterans. Led by researchers at Boston University School of Medicine (BUSM) and VA Boston Healthcare System, the review article currently appears online in the journal of Clinical Psychology Review. Sleep difficulty is a primary symptom of both PTSD and TBI and has been found to affect the severity ...

Some single people are happy on their own, research finds

2015-08-21
People who fear relationship conflicts are just as happy when they are single or in a relationship, according to new research published by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology. "It's a well-documented finding that single people tend to be less happy compared to those in a relationship, but that may not be true for everyone. Single people also can have satisfying lives," said lead researcher Yuthika Girme, a psychology doctoral candidate at the University of Auckland in New Zealand. In a survey of more than 4,000 New Zealand residents, a nationally ...

Water pollution in alluvial rivers is studied by an innovative and efficient approach

Water pollution in alluvial rivers is studied by an innovative and efficient approach
2015-08-21
Water pollution has been a historical and stubborn problem in the water resource management. Several water pollution accidents continually occurred all over the world, threatening the safety of industry, agriculture and drinking water for resident's life (see Figure 1). An innovative and efficient approach was identified to study the complicated mechanism of water pollution in alluvial rivers. The article titled "Numerical Simulation of Pollution Process Due to Resuspension of Bed Materials Adsorbing Pollutants in Alluvial Rivers" was recently published in Science China ...

Researchers developing next generation of high power lasers

2015-08-21
Researchers at the University of Strathclyde are developing groundbreaking plasma based light amplifiers that could replace traditional high power laser amplifiers. The research group at the Glasgow-based University are leading efforts to take advantage of plasma, the ubiquitous medium that makes up most of the universe, to make the significant scientific breakthrough. The next generation of high power lasers should be able to crack the vacuum to produce real particles from the sea of virtual particles. Example of these types of lasers can be found at the Extreme Light ...

Scientists warn of the risk from air pollution over the megacities of West Africa

2015-08-21
New research by European and African scientists, including a team from the University of York, warns of the risks posed by the increasing air pollution over the cities of West Africa - amid fears it could have an impact on human health, meteorology and regional climate. The atmosphere above West Africa is still one of the least studied and understood on the planet, despite its central role for the health and economic wellbeing of a large and increasing population. Rapidly expanding cities such as Lagos in Nigeria, Accra in Ghana and Abidjan in Ivory Coast are producing ...

Something to chew on -- millions of lives blighted by smokeless tobacco

2015-08-21
More than a quarter of a million people die each year from using smokeless tobacco, researchers at the University of York have concluded. Millions more have their lives shortened by ill health due to the effects of chewing tobacco-based products, the study reveals. Researchers say it is the first time the global impact of smokeless tobacco consumption on adults has been assessed. The team, which included collaboration from the University of Edinburgh and Imperial College, London, says governments and public health bodies need to consider incorporating the regulation ...

High sugar consumption among children relates to poor family functioning, study finds

2015-08-21
The quality of general family functioning is a major determinant of healthy dietary habits - according to new research published in the Journal of Caries Research and led by Queen Mary University of London. The East London Family (ELF) Study found that a mother's perception of effective general family functioning has a significant effect on limiting the intake of sugary foods and drinks by their three and four year old children. In contrast, less effective family functioning leads to high frequency intake of sugary foods and drinks by three and four year old children ...

Why collaboration may encourage corporate corruption

2015-08-21
While the benefits of cooperation in human society are clear, new research from The University of Nottingham suggests it also has a dark side - one that encourages corrupt behaviour. "Collaborative settings, not just greed, can provide fertile ground for corruption, as typified by recent scandals in the football and banking worlds. But while much is known about individual immoral behaviour, little is known about the collaborative roots of corruption," explains lead author Dr Ori Weisel from the School of Economics at the University. The study, The Collaborative Roots ...

Chapman University research on meat species shows mislabeling in commercial products

2015-08-21
ORANGE, Calif. - Researchers in Chapman University's Food Science Program have just published two separate studies on meat mislabeling in consumer commercial products. One study focused on identification of species found in ground meat products, and the other focused on game meat species labeling. Both studies examined products sold in the U.S. commercial market; and both study outcomes identified species mislabeling among the product samples. In the study on identification of species found in ground meat products, 48 samples were analyzed and 10 were found to be mislabeled. ...

How can we improve data sharing of biomedical research across the globe?

2015-08-21
Los Angeles, CA (August 21, 2015) With the globalization of biomedical research and growing concerns about possible pandemics of diseases such as HIV, SARS, and Ebola, international data-sharing practices are of growing interest to the biomedical science community. But what are the advantages and disadvantages of sharing data in low and middle-income settings? What challenges stand in the way for researchers in countries such as India, Kenya, and Vietnam? A new special issue of SAGE's Journal of Empirical Research on Human Research Ethics (JERHRE) presents guidelines, protocols, ...

Persist and shout: Male bluebirds alter songs to be heard over increased acoustic noise

Persist and shout: Male bluebirds alter songs to be heard over increased acoustic noise
2015-08-21
Birds 'shout' to be heard over the noise produced by man-made activity, new research has shown. The innovative study, led by an expert from the University of Exeter, looked at how bluebirds altered their songs in response to increases in nearby background noise caused, in many cases, by human activities such as traffic. It found that the birds altered their songs immediately after noise levels intensified, making 'real-time' adjustments in order to produce songs that are both louder and lower-pitched. The results suggest that birds are able to perceive increases in ...

As Ice Age ended, greenhouse gas rise was lead factor in melting of Earth's glaciers

As Ice Age ended, greenhouse gas rise was lead factor in melting of Earths glaciers
2015-08-21
Chestnut Hill, MA (Aug. 21, 2015) - A fresh look at some old rocks has solved a crucial mystery of the last Ice Age, yielding an important new finding that connects to the global retreat of glaciers caused by climate change today, according to a new study by a team of climate scientists. For decades, researchers examining the glacial meltdown that ended 11,000 years ago took into account a number of contributing factors, particularly regional influences such as solar radiation, ice sheets and ocean currents. But a reexamination of more than 1,000 previously studied ...

Study uses 311 complaints to track where and when neighborhood conflict emerges

2015-08-21
CHICAGO -- Each year, 311 -- New York City's main hub for government information and non-emergency services -- receives millions of requests and complaints, including New Yorkers' gripes about their neighbors. In a new study from New York University (NYU) using 311 complaint data, researchers tracked when and where New Yorkers complain about their neighbors making noise, blocking driveways, or drinking in public. They found that these complaints -- a defining aspect of urban life -- are more likely to occur in areas sandwiched between two homogenous communities, where ...

GM -- 'the most critical technology' for feeding the world

2015-08-21
A former adviser to the US Secretary of State says that genetic modification (GM) is the most critical technology in agriculture for meeting the challenges of feeding a growing global population, writing in the open access journal Agriculture & Food Security. Nina Fedoroff, molecular biologist and former Science and Technology Adviser to Hillary Clinton and Condoleezza Rice, warns of the detrimental influence of politics and misinformation on the safety of GM crops. Instead, Fedoroff says that: "GM crops are arguably the safest new crops ever introduced into the human ...

Without humans, the whole world could look like Serengeti

Without humans, the whole world could look like Serengeti
2015-08-21
The fact that the greatest diversity of large mammals is found in Africa reflects past human activities - and not climatic or other environmental constraints. This is determined in a new study, which presents what the world map of mammals would look like if modern man (Homo sapiens) had never existed. In a world without humans, most of northern Europe would probably now be home to not only wolves, Eurasian elk (moose) and bears, but also animals such as elephants and rhinoceroses. This is demonstrated in a new study conducted by researchers from Aarhus University, Denmark. ...

Eating 'on the go' could lead to weight gain, new research finds

2015-08-21
In a new study published today in the Journal of Health Psychology, researchers from the University of Surrey have found dieters who eat 'on the go' may increase their food intake later in the day which could lead to weight gain and obesity. The findings from the study also showed that eating while walking around triggered more overeating compared to eating during other forms of distraction such as watching TV or having a conversation with a friend. The team examined 60 females who were either dieters or non-dieters and gave them all a cereal bar to eat under three different ...

'Substantial' number of NHS hospital staff treat victims of human trafficking

2015-08-21
A "substantial" proportion of NHS hospital staff--around one in eight, in some places--treat the victims of people trafficking, with maternity services most likely to do so, finds research published in the online journal BMJ Open. Although understanding of the sorts of health problems trafficked patients are likely to have, is generally high, few NHS staff feel adequately prepared to respond appropriately, the findings suggest. International law requires that the UK provides victims of human trafficking with whatever medical treatment they require, which includes psychological ...

Nine risk factors may contribute to two-thirds of Alzheimer's cases worldwide

2015-08-21
Nine potentially modifiable risk factors may contribute to up to two thirds of Alzheimer's disease cases worldwide, suggests an analysis of the available evidence, published online in the Journal of Neurology Neurosurgery & Psychiatry. The analysis indicates the complexity of Alzheimer's disease development and just how varied the risk factors for it are. But the researchers suggest that preventive strategies, targeting diet, drugs, body chemistry, mental health, pre-existing disease, and lifestyle may help to stave off dementia. This could be particularly important, ...

The Lancet Neurology: Experts claim number of people with dementia in some Western European countries could be stabilizing

2015-08-21
In a Policy View published in The Lancet Neurology journal, a group of leading experts on the epidemiology of dementia state that the number of people with dementia - both new cases and total numbers with the disease - in some Western European countries is stabilising despite population ageing, in direct contrast to the "dementia epidemic" reported in some recent studies. The Policy View discusses data from five large epidemiological studies done in Sweden, the Netherlands, the UK, and Spain that compare dementia occurrence in old people across two periods of time using ...

Antibodies in the blood provide clues to transplant recipients' likelihood of rejection

2015-08-21
Highlights Among kidney transplant recipients, patients with mostly IgG3 donor-specific HLA antibodies had a higher likelihood of organ rejection soon after transplantation. If rejection occurred in those with mostly IgG4 antibodies, it was usually much later after transplantation. Washington, DC (August 20, 2015) -- The dominant antibody type present in the blood of transplant recipients may indicate their likelihood of experiencing organ rejection, according to a study appearing in an upcoming issue of the Journal of the American Society of Nephrology (JASN). ...

Spouses of stroke survivors face lingering health issues

2015-08-20
DALLAS, Aug. 20, 2015 -- Caregiver spouses of stroke survivors are at an increased risk of mental and physical health issues that may continue for years, according to research in the American Heart Association journal Stroke. Swedish researchers evaluated 248 stroke survivors, below age 70 (average mid-sixties), and their spouses at stroke onset and compared the results with 245 non-stroke controls for seven years after the stroke event. At the seven-year follow-up, 16.5 percent of survivors had suffered a recurrent stroke. Spouses of survivors reported lower scores ...

Breastfeeding may expose infants to toxic chemicals

2015-08-20
Boston, MA -- A widely used class of industrial chemicals linked with cancer and interference with immune function--perfluorinated alkylate substances, or PFASs--appears to build up in infants by 20%-30% for each month they're breastfed, according to a new study co-authored by experts from Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health. It is the first study to show the extent to which PFASs are transferred to babies through breast milk, and to quantify their levels over time. "We knew that small amounts of PFAS can occur in breast milk, but our serial blood analyses now show ...

Study documents extent of unexpected sexual consequences for young women who drink alcohol

2015-08-20
In-depth interviews conducted by researchers at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine of 20 young women attending an urban sexually transmitted disease clinic have documented a variety of unexpected, unintended sexual encounters linked to their alcohol use before sex occurs. Links between alcohol use and risky or deleterious sexual encounters are not necessarily new, say investigators, but this small study identifies very specifically the disconnect between what young women have in mind when they drink and have sex and what really happens. "The idea behind ...

RI Hospital researchers: US hospitals flout CDC recommendations that prevent infections

2015-08-20
According to a survey conducted by Rhode Island Hospital researchers, there is significant variability regarding how clinicians manage catheters placed in the arteries of patients in intensive care units. Some practices may increase risk of infection associated with these catheters. Fewer than half of those surveyed complied with current Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) infection prevention guidelines for arterial catheter insertions. The study was published today in Critical Care Medicine. "Barrier precautions are employed inconsistently by critical care ...

Long distance travelers likely contributing to antibiotic resistance's spread

2015-08-20
Washington, DC - August 20, 2015 - Swedish exchange students who studied in India and in central Africa returned from their sojourns with an increased diversity of antibiotic resistance genes in their gut microbiomes. The research is published 10 August in Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, a journal of the American Society for Microbiology. In the study, the investigators found a 2.6-fold increase in genes encoding resistance to sulfonamide, a 7.7-fold increase in trimethoprim resistance genes, and a 2.6-fold increase in resistance to beta-lactams, all of this without ...
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